Public Health 101: Introduction to Public Health

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Research Brief Assignment

  • Research Brief Search Assignment Assignment on reading, planning, searching for, and summarizing information based on a public health research brief.

The successful completion of this assignment depends on:

  • selecting key public health concepts from a summary of research
  • seeking out new, college-level information on the same topic
  • summarizing scientific research that is relevant to the topic
  • crediting sources where ideas come from.

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200 FREE Printable Health Activities | Health Worksheets | Teaching Medicine Worksheets

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FREE Medicine and Health Worksheets

Wouldn’t it be awful to get sick in a foreign country and not be able to communicate with the doctor or hospital staff learning english will not help your learners in every country but it will give them another skill that could come in very handy in this type of scenario. teachers have submitted 200 worksheets on this topic and more are added on a regular basis. this one-page medicine worksheet includes some common vocabulary learners can use at the doctor’s office as well as several useful practice exercises. the comprehensive teacher’s notes are included and make using this activity in your esl classroom simple. if the target structures in the textbook you are using are different from the ones included on this sheet, simply use this as inspiration for your own worksheet and then upload it for other busy teachers. medicine and health is a great esl topic that will come up several times. beginners will usually learn body parts very early on while intermediate students may talk about medicine and doctors when practicing giving advice. advanced learners could benefit from talking about the health care system in their country. this is also a very practical topic as students will be much better off if they can explain their symptoms when they get sick while traveling. completing a role play exercise will give them the practice they need to do this effectively. read more... ...less.

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MPH 530.001: Global Public Health Challenges: Assignments for MPH 530.001

  • Assignments for MPH 530.001
  • MPH 530: Required and Supplemental Reading & Resources
  • Research Process Overview & Librarian Contact Info
  • Selecting a Topic in Public Health
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  • 3a. Evaluate Sources
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MPH 530 Syllabus

  • MPH 530 Syllabus - Schiavo

Library Session Handouts


Thanks to Gloria Willson for creating the original version of the libguide.


I. Classroom Attendance and In-Class Participation to Discussion and Activities (25% of the final grade) Each student will follow the rules of “good classroom discussion” that will be generated at the beginning of the semester by this class and for this class, and will actively participate to discussion and activities. A detailed grading rubric will be generated by the instructor on the basis of the good classroom discussion criteria.

II. In-class Assignment – Midterm (15% of the final grade) This in-class assignment is a written exam consisting of 5 open ended questions. Open-ended questions means that possible answers are not suggested, so students are required to provide an in-depth response. The assignment will cover topics from session 1 to 5 (see list of topics at the end the syllabus) and will be asking students to analyze and react to a case study, including their own suggestions and ideas on future directions and potential activities to addressing the specific global health issue highlighted by the case study. Students will have 90 minutes to complete the assignment.

III. Homework Assignments (10% of the final grade) The schedule at the end of this syllabus lists a number of required homework assignments that may consist of visiting and analyzing specific website or preparing for a specific discussion question. Completing all required readings and preparing 1-2 questions on any of the readings for in-class discussion is a standard homework assignment that applies to all sessions in this course.

IV. Advocacy Statement (15% of the final grade) Give voice to a vulnerable population! Develop an advocacy statement, just as if you would testify at the United Nations or at a local national government – include a brief description of the population (e.g., children, elderly women, specific racial or ethnic groups, people living with a disability or in poverty, etc.) and its vulnerability and advocate for specific solutions to address the rights of such population in relation to overall health status, disease prevention, access to healthcare services or treatment, and/or to addressing a specific determinant of health (e.g., education, social or racial discrimination, socioeconomic conditions, lack of access to water, sanitation, transportation or other essential services, etc.) that may influence health outcomes in this group. Your statement needs to be convincing, based on existing and emerging research, and other literature and facts, include a global component, and suggest a potential solution and course of action. Format requirements: 350 to 500 words max – 5-7 minutes talk, a minimum of 6 references. A Q&A with fellow students will follow each advocacy statement/talk. A few resources on how to develop an advocacy statement will be posted on Blackboard and LibGuides as well as discussed in class.

V. Final Group Project – Poster - (25% of final grade for the actual poster; 15% of final grade for group presentation) Students will work in groups to develop a poster presentation. Groups will be formed by the instructor in alphabetical order. Students will select a VULNERABLE POPULATION GLOBALLY affected by a specific disease (option 1), or health condition, or select a DISEASE WITH GLOBAL IMPACT (option 2), or select A CASE STUDY ON A GLOBAL HEALTH INTERVENTION (option 3). Students will search, identify, and analyze existing literature and other documents to support the poster presentation. The self-standing poster should include the following information:

  • Description of the population, including demographics and risk factors determining the overall health status in this population;
  • Most common or prevalent health issues in this population;
  • Existing access and/or barriers to health care and treatment options for this population
  • Key factors/social determinants of health contributing to the overall health status of this population
  • Local and global policies regulating control and prevention of a diseases in this population;
  • A discussion of local and global documents addressing the needs of this population. The discussion should suggest improvement of existing programs and interventions that aim at improving population-specific health outcomes.

OR Option 2

  • A description of the specific disease or health condition, including etiology, clinical course, treatment, recovery and  outcomes, prevention measures, and social, environmental, and individual factors contributing to disease incidence and  prevalence in different populations
  • Information on populations that are most affected by this disease or health condition globally;
  • Local and global policies and laws that regulated the prevention, treatment and control of the disease and/or address specific determinants of health that contribute to disease outcomes among different groups
  • A discussion on the importance of global documents, laws and regulations that are related to disease control and  prevention (as specific to the select disease or health condition), including your suggestions for policy improvements in this area

OR Option 3

  • Research and analyze a global health intervention in one of the following areas: health disparities/health equity; immunization; maternal and child health; epidemics and emerging diseases/communicable diseases; non-communicable diseases/chronic diseases; complex humanitarian emergencies; global health worker migration
  • Include the intervention goals and objectives, strategies, activities, lessons learned, evaluation data, and future directions (including your own suggestions for improvements and future strategies)

Poster Format: 24X36 poster size in black and white or color (preferred). Students who participate in this course agree that they will share printing costs for their group posters with fellow students in their group. Posters can be printed at any location/service of students’ choice. Please plan in advance and inform yourself of estimated time for printing at the location/service of your choice, so you can allow enough time for printing. Use at least 5-6 references to support the poster. List references on the poster. A detailed poster template will be posted on Blackboard.

Poster Presentation: There will be a 15-20 minute presentation per poster in class on one of two days listed in the syllabus followed by discussion. Each student will receive a group grade for the oral part of the presentation. Be prepared to answer questions during your presentation, to discuss your topic.

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Social Determinants and Health Behaviors: Conceptual Frames and Empirical Advances

Susan e. short.

a Department of Sociology, Brown University, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912, USA

Stefanie Mollborn

b Institute of Behavioral Science and Department of Sociology, University of Colorado Boulder, UCB 483, Boulder, CO 80309-0483, USA

Health behaviors shape health and well-being in individuals and populations. Drawing on recent research, we review applications of the widely applied “social determinants” approach to health behaviors. This approach shifts the lens from individual attribution and responsibility to societal organization and the myriad institutions, structures, inequalities, and ideologies undergirding health behaviors. Recent scholarship integrates a social determinants perspective with biosocial approaches to health behavior dynamics. Empirical advances model feedback among social, psychological and biological factors. Health behaviors are increasingly recognized as multidimensional and embedded in health lifestyles, varying over the life course and across place and reflecting dialectic between structure and agency that necessitates situating individuals in context. Advances in measuring and modeling health behaviors promise to enhance representations of this complexity.


At any given point, an individual’s health and health behaviors reflect physical endowments in combination with a cumulated set of experiences and circumstances that have unfolded over time, in distinct social and physical contexts. This perspective, a blend of medical sociology, social demography, and social epidemiology, emphasizes the social milieu of health, or what is more commonly known as the social determinants of health . Over the past decade, scientific and policy interest in the social determinants of health has grown markedly, reflecting increasing consensus that overall health and health disparities are shaped significantly by nonmedical factors [ 1 , 2 ]. While these nonmedical factors include individual characteristics, such as education, income, and health beliefs, many others derive from an individual’s social and physical contexts – families, schools, workplaces, neighborhoods, and the larger politicaleconomic organization of society – “upstream” factors that further enable or constrain health[ 3 ]. Other nonmedical factors include the institutional and ideational contexts that shape normative environments and contribute to ideas and identities [ 3 – 5 ].

This emphasis on ‘extra-individual’ social factors is reflected in the recent 2020 Healthy People framework, published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which states:

“health and health behaviors are determined by influences at multiple levels, including personal (i.e., biological, psychological), organizational/institutional, environmental (i.e., both social and physical), and policy levels…Historically, many health fields have focused on individual-level health determinants and interventions.”

Below we review recent research on social determinants with a focus on health behaviors. Health behaviors are conceptually and practically pivotal in research on health. Conceptually, they are recognized as key mediating mechanisms between more distal structural and ideological environments and individual health outcomes. Practically, health behaviors are estimated to account for about 40% of deaths in the U.S. annually [ 7 ]. We organize this review thematically, highlighting selected conceptual frames and empirical advances in sociology and related fields, with emphasis on research published since 2013.

1. Health Behaviors – Definitions and Emerging Concepts

Health behaviors, sometimes called health-related behaviors, are actions taken by individuals that affect health or mortality. These actions may be intentional or unintentional, and can promote or detract from the health of the actor or others. Actions that can be classified as health behaviors are many; examples include smoking, substance use, diet, physical activity, sleep, risky sexual activities, health care seeking behaviors, and adherence to prescribed medical treatments. Health behaviors are frequently discussed as individual-level behaviors, but they can be measured and summarized for individuals, groups, or populations. Health behaviors are dynamic, varying over the lifespan, across cohorts, across settings, and over time. With smoking in the U.S, for example, the likelihood of initiation varies with age. Recent cohorts of adults are less likely to smoke than those in the mid-1900s, smoking prevalence is higher in the south than in the west, and smoking became less common after the Surgeon General’s Report of 1964 [ 8 – 11].

Focused interest in health behaviors, and efforts aimed at changing them, emerged in the midtwentieth century [ 12 ]. Narrowly defined biomedical approaches to health behavior research and interventions have been critiqued in recent years for an overemphasis on individual choice and personal responsibility; this individual focus is reflected in theories built around educating individuals to change health beliefs and actions [ 4 ]. A sociological approach expands the bounds of inquiry by emphasizing the need to examine individual actions in context, recognizing a role for structure as well as agency. Such an approach considers the place of constraints that limit choice, and the role of normative structures that shape the social values attached to activities, identities, and choices. It also engages themes of inequality and power in society.

Conceptual and methodological advances in defining health behaviors emphasize integrative and dynamic measurement. An important theoretical advance in the last decade is the concept of “health lifestyles” [ 4 , 13 ]. Policies targeting health behaviors tend to focus on a single behavior, often finding that these behaviors are resistant to change. A health lifestyle approach instead views behaviors as occurring in sets and influencing each other, developing from deeply rooted identities arising from membership in social groups [ 14 ]. Thus, health lifestyles are enacted at the individual level but are shaped by the meso and macro levels. Understanding the interplay between health behaviors is seen as fundamental for successfully changing those behaviors [ 15 ]. Most of the limited empirical work has focused on adults [ 16 , 17 ], but research and policy is now targeting the early life course as well [ 5 , 18 ]. For example, Mollborn et al . modeled U.S. preschoolers’ predominant health lifestyles and the intergenerational processes that give rise to them, finding that they predicted school readiness in kindergarten [ 5 ].

A significant methodological advance has been the collection of more refined data on health behaviors through intensive longitudinal data collection [ 19 ]. Innovations in technology allow for simultaneous and frequent data collection on social and spatial dimensions of activities in real time, creating enhanced opportunities to learn how individuals practice health behaviors as they unfold in usual social and spatial settings [ 20 – 22 ]. In the Human Mobility Project, Palmer and colleagues tested the feasibility of administering dynamic, location-based surveys by asking participants to download an app and install it on their phones, thereby gathering data on the phone’s positioning as participants moved through their daily routines and completed the surveys [ 23 ]. Others highlight the promise of health behavior interventions that provide frequent consistent reminders, monitoring, and rewards, through wearable devices, including monitors, [ 24 , 25 ], such as a pilot study that suggested that personally tailored text messaging about diabetes self-care to adolescents with type I diabetes was associated with greater glycemic control after three months [ 26 ].

2. A “Social Determinants” Approach to Health Behaviors

The interdisciplinary approach labeled “social determinants” seeks to understand how the social world shapes people’s health. One major pathway is through health behaviors. Health scholars distinguish between “downstream” (individual, in the body) and “upstream” (social structural, macro-level) causes of health behaviors [ 27 ]. Examples of the latter include institutions such as the health care system – which is changing rapidly in the U.S. due to the Affordable Care Act and is a target of ongoing research [ 28 ] – and the labor market – recession-based changes in this institution have spurred recent research on health implications [ 29 – 31 ]. For example, Kalousova and Burgard examined subjective and objective recessionary hardships, finding that they predicted problematic substance use in distinct ways [ 31 ]. Medical and psychological research focuses largely on downstream causes, while political, economic, and sociological research focuses more on the upstream [ 3 ]. The “meso” level between these two extremes is also fundamental for understanding health behaviors [ 32 ]. This level focuses on the proximate settings in which people live their lives – neighborhoods, workplaces, families, and the like – as well as the interpersonal interactions that take place within these settings. For example, examinations of women’s HIV risk in sub-Saharan Africa has traditionally focused on dynamics within sexual relationships, but more recent work recognizes the need to situate these relationships within the larger context of women’s lives, including their kinship, caregiving, and family responsibilities, as it is the family and kinship system in which gender, economic vulnerability and HIV risk are embedded [ 33 ].

Cutting-edge research into social determinants is taking place at the meso level. The importance of place for people’s health is increasingly acknowledged [ 34 ]. For example, the effects of neighborhoods on health behaviors [ 35 – 38 ], a longstanding focus of research, are becoming better understood by modeling neighborhoods dynamically, accounting for selection, and modeling spatial features of neighborhood environments [ 39 , 40 ]. Wodtke measured neighborhood poverty across childhood, finding that long-term exposure was positively associated with the likelihood of becoming a teen parent [ 41 ]. The spread of health behaviors in people’s social networks can now be modeled statistically [ 42 ], and scholars are working to disentangle causality from selection in understanding these processes of social contagion [ 43 – 45 ]. The benefits of social support are being further elaborated, but a nuanced view that also highlights the dark side of social relationships is emerging [ 42 , 43 ]. Examining peer influences on adolescent smoking behavior, Haas and colleagues conducted a dynamic social network analysis that distinguishes between increases and decreases in smoking, and explicitly incorporates endogenous network change, to show that while peer behavior influences smoking initiation, it is less related to smoking cessation [ 42 ].

Important concepts related to social determinants of health, like discrimination and stress, transcend the macro, meso, and micro levels [ 46 ]. For instance, discrimination is encoded in institutional practices, plays out in interaction at conscious and unconscious levels through processes involving bias and stigma [ 47 – 50 ], and affects individuals through health-damaging self-perceptions [ 32 ] and stereotype threat [ 51 ].

Similarly, key demographic factors, like social class, race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation, influence health through all of these levels [ 52 – 54 ]. For example, gender is conceptualized not only as an individual level characteristic, but also as embedded in and constitutive of social structure, with implications for health behaviors, and even the expression of biological variation ([ 53 , 55 , 56 ]).Viewing social class as a fundamental cause of health disparities [ 57 ], many researchers illustrate how higher social class enables greater access to knowledge and resources, often yielding health advantages at the institutional, interactional, and individual levels and leading to altered behaviors [ 13 , 58 – 60 ]. The concept of intersectionality [ 61 – 63 ] further complicates this perspective by acknowledging that people experience multiple social statuses simultaneously, and their effects on health behaviors are not simply additive. These nuanced multilevel approaches to understanding health behaviors are increasingly common and may yield multipronged policy strategies [ 52 , 64 ].

3. Biosocial Processes: Situating Individuals in Social and Physical Contexts

As conceptual and empirical attention to social and ecological factors grows, so, too, do efforts to expand understanding of biological factors. These advances intersect in biosocial approaches that include concepts such as embodiment, biological embedding, social genomics, and systems approaches [ 65 – 67 ]. Embodiment is the process of the biological incorporation of societal and ecological context from the physical and social worlds in which we live [ 68 ]. Embedding emphasizes the developmental aspects of embodiment by focusing on timing of environmental exposures, with an emphasis on exposures that occur early in the life course, perhaps coincidental with critical periods of brain or biological development, and with potential to shape life-long outcomes through a variety social and biological mechanisms, some of which span generations [ 65 ]. For example, Bygren reviews possible mechanisms that could contribute to the intergenerational transmission of alcoholism, including changes to sperm that result from paternal alcohol exposure [ 69 ]. Social genomics focuses on identifying the ways social experiences regulate genetic activity [ 67 , 70 ]. Finally, systems approaches emphasize dynamic interplay, or feedback, between and within “environments” and often “biological” processes. Ip and colleagues, for example, inform interventions related to childhood obesity by developing dynamic models that incorporate feedback between health behaviors (food intake, activity levels) and physiology (mood, genetic factors), and include inputs such as poverty and local food environment, by blending agent-based modeling approaches and frequentist statistical approaches [ 71 ]. Focusing on policy, Zhang and colleagues develop agent-based simulations to model processes of dietary decision-making to find polices that emphasize healthy eating norms may be more effective than those regulating food prices or local food outlets [ 72 ].

Conceptually, interaction approaches emphasize that while social environments shape health behaviors, not all individuals respond in the same way to the same environments [ 73 ]. Mitchell and colleagues illustrate this with an analysis of post-partum depression, making the case that some women are genetically more reactive to stress environments. Among women with the polymorphisms associated with reactivity, those in poor environments experience worse outcomes, and those in rich environments experience better outcomes. In contrast, embodiment or social genomics emphasizes how health behaviors, such as smoking or diet, shape genomic activity or other measured biology. Such approaches might, for example, illustrate how smoking or physical activity is associated with telomere length or allostatic load [ 74 , 75 ]. In practice these approaches overlap. Complexity is evident in real world examples. Cultural norms, including gender norms, regarding diet or play can be embodied in bone development or body size, and these physical characteristics can in turn shape health behaviors [ 53 , 76 ]. Institutional and cultural racism, associated conscious or unconscious bias, and discrimination,can be associated with psychosocial stress, health behaviors, and health outcomes [ 77 ] but these relationships will vary across individuals.

Detailing biosocial processes linking social environment and health behaviors is challenging. Example investigations include discrimination and social resistance [ 78 , 79 ], emotions and stress [ 80 , 81 ], and cognitive processes such as decision-making and framing [ 82 ]. Attempts to incorporate feedback processes conceptually and methodologically are growing [ 83 , 84 ], as are efforts to address the challenges of causality [ 85 ]. For example, in an analysis of exercise and alcohol consumption, Wagner and colleagues use the random assignment of roommates in the first year of college to disentangle the selection of peer environments from peer and genetic effects on health behaviors [ 85 ].

4. Elaborating Life Course and Intergenerational Processes

Health behaviors change over an individual’s life course. Some behaviors – like riding in a car seat – are only important early in life, while others – like drinking alcohol – emerge later. Yet people with similar social locations exhibit similar health behaviors throughout life, even though those behaviors change with age [ 86 ]. The key principles of the interdisciplinary life course theoretical perspective [ 87 , 88 ] help explain individuals’ health behaviors over time.

First, human lives are shaped by historical times [ 88 , 89 ]. For example, social acceptance of smoking in the U.S. has varied tremendously from decade to decade, influencing both people’s likelihood of smoking and the degree to which genetic susceptibility to smoking is associated with smoking behavior [ 90 ]. Second, the nature and timing of life events is consequential in a person’s later life course [ 91 ]. Pregnancy is seen as a risky sexual behavior for teens, but not for married adults [ 92 ]. Teen pregnancy is tied to other risky health behaviors in adolescence such as drug use [ 93 ] [ 94 ] and later-life outcomes such as educational attainment [ 95 ]. Third, people’s lives are linked within and across generations. Across generations, parents’ health behaviors shape their children’s health and vice versa [ 96 , 97 ]. Within generations, young people’s behaviors are influenced by those of their friends [ 44 ]. Fourth, people are agentic, making active choices among the options that their structural locations provide [ 4 , 13 ]. Thus, integrating social structural processes with psychological constructs such as planful competence and risk aversion is fundamental for more accurately predicting people’s health behaviors. Overall, the life course perspective emphasizes the dynamic nature of social circumstances and health, which is reflected in emerging research [ 88 , 98 – 101 ]. For example, research on migration emphasizes dynamic processes of “acculturation” after arriving in a new place [ 102 ].

Methodological challenges in this area are abundant. Reverse causality between health behaviors and structural location is a concern, as is selection bias [ 95 ]. Recent work on health behaviors from a life course perspective emphasizes dynamic processes such as developmental timing, cooccurrence, fluctuation, and nonlinear relationships [ 41 , 103 – 107 ]. For instance, Boynton-Jarrett and colleagues found that frequent life disruptions in adolescence across several domains predicted cumulative violence exposure and risky health behaviors [ 103 ]. Modeling theoretical ideas that follow from life course frames is methodologically challenging. Statistical techniques such as multilevel growth curve and trajectory modeling, age-period-cohort models, and latent class analyses are helping empirical tests catch up to theoretical innovations [ 5 , 64 , 95 , 108 – 110 ]. For example, Wang and colleagues modeled six distinct trajectories of engagement in risk behaviors such as delinquency, substance use, and sex, following Bahamian youth from grades 6–9, demonstrating the importance of early social risk factors for high risk trajectories [ 110 ].


Health behaviors are associated with a multitude of health and well-being outcomes at the individual and population levels. Drawing on recent research in sociology and related fields, we draw attention in this review to the application of a “social determinants” approach – now widely applied to health – to the specific topic of health behaviors. Such an approach shifts the lens from individual attribution and responsibility for health behaviors – to societal organization and the myriad institutions, structures, inequalities, and ideologies that undergird observed variation in health behaviors. We emphasize that a social determinants approach is not at odds with the incorporation of biological and psychological processes; rather, it recognizes the interplay between them in complex, dynamic systems, embracing a population approach that situates individuals in context. Life course frames that emphasize interdisciplinarity, history, time, context, and linked lives guide much recent investigation. And notably, through the conceptual refocus around social determinants and societal organization, a growing emphasis on links among health behaviors is emerging, upending the more usual single-disease, or single-health behavior, orientation to research and research specialization.

Future directions in “social determinants” research on health behaviors will be guided by this foundational thinking. The abundance of new data – including but not limited to administrative, geographic, social network, social media, medical, and genomic data – will provide ample opportunity for creative exploration. Our knowledge about health behavior dynamics is context-dependent. Changing societal factors, such as the legalization of marijuana use in some settings, or the implementation of the Affordable Care Act in the U.S., render understanding about individual health behaviors incomplete, as these understandings are contingent on context. The very populations that use marijuana or seek health care will change, as will the dynamics, determinants, and consequences of their health behaviors. Innovative science on the social determinants of health behaviors will continue to elaborate this complexity and expand the frames that guide health behavior research.

  • Health behaviors reflect interplay between people and contextual factors.
  • “Social determinants” include societal institutions, ideologies, and inequalities.
  • Health behaviors contribute to and reflect embodiment and other biosocial processes.
  • Recent work engages health lifestyles, agency, and multilevel life course dynamics.
  • Empirical advances model feedback among social, psychological and biological factors.


We thank Leah Pierson for research assistance. We also acknowledge support from the Population Studies and Training Center at Brown University, which receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development through grants R24HD041020 and T32HD007338, and the Institute of Behavioral Science at the University of Colorado Boulder, which receives core support through grant R24HD066613.

Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

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Teaching Public Health Writing

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Teaching Public Health Writing

3 Designing Writing Assignments for Public Health Classes

  • Published: September 2022
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Public health professionals do many types of writing. Each has its own audience and purpose. Our readers tend to be busy and easily distracted. Public health students at all educational levels need clear instructions about audience, purpose, and genre. The interdisciplinary nature of public health means that students will often be unfamiliar with the types of documents we ask them to write. Chapter 3 offers guidance on designing clear, detailed writing assignments that allow students to practice different types of public health writing for various readers and purposes. Because public health programs draw students from a wide array of disciplines, professional, and cultural backgrounds, professors cannot assume students will know what a determinants analysis or policy brief is, let alone how to write one. At their best, writing assignment instructions suggest outlines and clearly identify both the intended reader and objective of the document.

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Make Learning Enjoyable with these Health Lessons for Kids

Explore different ways to teach kids health in the classroom or at home, that will keep them engaged and enthusiastic. Our health lesson plans range in topics designed for preschool kids to elementary and middle school students. We’ve designed these health lessons for kids to be time-efficient yet impactful and memorable. Whether you’re a teacher, other type of educator, parent or guardian, our lessons for kids will make learning enjoyable for both you and your students.

In these lessons, kids will learn fun ways to practice mindfulness and balance, how to eat well, ways to be active, or keep clean and hygienic—and without it feeling like another chore. Choose one of our health lesson plans below for a quick and easy learning activity for your child or children.

  • 3-14 Years Old
  • 3-8 Years Old
  • 9-14 Years Old
  • Responsible Decision Making
  • Self-Awareness
  • Self-Management

Exercise and Your Brain

All fats are not created equal, bad breath: what to do about it, backpack safety: that’s a thing, body composition, brain boost, breakfast power, breathe easy: asthma 101, create your own healthful snack, decreasing screen time, drive your bike keys to safe and healthy cycling, eye protection, fast food alert, food allergy awareness, gardening – growing goodness, get out and enjoy nature, get the facts: know your food label, gratefuls and grumbles: helping kids develop an attitude of gratitude, gratitude: overlooked blessings, grocery store virtual tour, guided imagery for younger children, guided imagery: create the state you want, hand-washing: a weapon against germs, healthy heart, how hungry am i, hungry for breakfast, it’s all in the breathing, it’s mealtime relax and enjoy, know what matters to you, learning mindfulness through movement, let’s talk maximizing the benefits of family mealtime, learning to calm fear, listen hear all about the ear, living a healthy life, love your lunch, marketing mania, mental remix, milk matters, more milk, please, smile bright tooth care, the power of meditation, wash hands for health, move it the importance of daily exercise for kids, myplate and yours too, noticing walk and reflection, oversweetened: the truth about sugary drinks, pedometer fitness fun, picky eating, portion distortion, power-up with snacks, quench your thirst the importance of water, safe and fun, in the sun, safe food is good food, self-esteem and body image activities for kids, skin: caring for the largest organ, smart snacking, splash why is it important to bathe, sports drinks and energy drinks, how to stay safe during physical activity, stress busters, stress no body needs it, stretch for your best, super sleep, the concussion conundrum, the dish on gluten, tobacco and e-cigarettes, vegetarian basics, water: making living things grow, what we can do to stress less, having a positive mindset, what’s my portion size.

This site is presented for information only and is not intended to substitute for professional medical advice. Health Powered Kids is a trademark of Allina Health System. Presentation and Design © 2015 Allina Health. All Rights Reserved.


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Medicare Assignment: Everything You Need to Know

Medicare assignment.

  • Providers Accepting Assignment
  • Providers Who Do Not
  • Billing Options
  • Assignment of Benefits
  • How to Choose

Frequently Asked Questions

Medicare assignment is an agreement between Medicare and medical providers (doctors, hospitals, medical equipment suppliers, etc.) in which the provider agrees to accept Medicare’s fee schedule as payment in full when Medicare patients are treated.

This article will explain how Medicare assignment works, and what you need to know in order to ensure that you won’t receive unexpected bills.

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There are 35 million Americans who have Original Medicare. Medicare is a federal program and most medical providers throughout the country accept assignment with Medicare. As a result, these enrollees have a lot more options for medical providers than most of the rest of the population.

They can see any provider who accepts assignment, anywhere in the country. They can be assured that they will only have to pay their expected Medicare cost-sharing (deductible and coinsurance, some or all of which may be paid by a Medigap plan , Medicaid, or supplemental coverage provided by an employer or former employer).

It’s important to note here that the rules are different for the 29 million Americans who have Medicare Advantage plans. These beneficiaries cannot simply use any medical provider who accepts Medicare assignment.

Instead, each Medicare Advantage plan has its own network of providers —much like the health insurance plans that many Americans are accustomed to obtaining from employers or purchasing in the exchange/marketplace .

A provider who accepts assignment with Medicare may or may not be in-network with some or all of the Medicare Advantage plans that offer coverage in a given area. Some Medicare Advantage plans— health maintenance organizations (HMOs) , in particular—will only cover an enrollee’s claims if they use providers who are in the plan's network.

Other Medicare Advantage plans— preferred provider organizations (PPOs) , in particular—will cover out-of-network care but the enrollee will pay more than they would have paid had they seen an in-network provider.

Original Medicare

The bottom line is that Medicare assignment only determines provider accessibility and costs for people who have Original Medicare. People with Medicare Advantage need to understand their own plan’s provider network and coverage rules.

When discussing Medicare assignment and access to providers in this article, keep in mind that it is referring to people who have Original Medicare.

How to Make Sure Your Provider Accepts Assignment

Most doctors, hospitals, and other medical providers in the United States do accept Medicare assignment.

Provider Participation Stats

According to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 98% of providers participate in Medicare, which means they accept assignment.

You can ask the provider directly about their participation with Medicare. But Medicare also has a tool that you can use to find participating doctors, hospitals, home health care services, and other providers.

There’s a filter on that tool labeled “Medicare-approved payment.” If you turn on that filter, you will only see providers who accept Medicare assignment. Under each provider’s information, it will say “Charges the Medicare-approved amount (so you pay less out-of-pocket).”

What If Your Provider Doesn’t Accept Assignment?

If your medical provider or equipment supplier doesn’t accept assignment, it means they haven’t agreed to accept Medicare’s approved amounts as payment in full for all of the services.

These providers can still choose to accept assignment on a case-by-case basis. But because they haven’t agreed to accept Medicare assignment for all services, they are considered nonparticipating providers.

Note that "nonparticipating" does not mean that a provider has opted out of Medicare altogether. Medicare will still pay claims for services received from a nonparticipating provider (i.e., one who does not accept Medicare assignment), whereas Medicare does not cover any of the cost of services obtained from a provider who has officially opted out of Medicare.

If a Medicare beneficiary uses a provider who has opted out of Medicare, that person will pay the provider directly and Medicare will not be involved in any way.

Physicians Who Have Opted Out

Only about 1% of all non-pediatric physicians have opted out of Medicare.

For providers who have not opted out of Medicare but who also don’t accept assignment, Medicare will still pay nearly as much as it would have paid if you had used a provider who accepts assignment. Here’s how it works:

  • Medicare will pay the provider 95% of the amount they would pay if the provider accepted assignment.
  • The provider can charge the person receiving care more than the Medicare-approved amount, but only up to 15% more (some states limit this further). This extra amount, which the patient has to pay out-of-pocket, is known as the limiting charge . But the 15% cap does not apply to medical equipment suppliers; if they do not accept assignment with Medicare, there is no limit on how much they can charge the person receiving care. This is why it’s particularly important to make sure that the supplier accepts Medicare assignment if you need medical equipment.
  • The nonparticipating provider may require the person receiving care to pay the entire bill up front and seek reimbursement from Medicare (using Form CMS 1490-S ). Alternatively, they may submit a claim to Medicare on behalf of the person receiving care (using Form CMS-1500 ).
  • A nonparticipating provider can choose to accept assignment on a case-by-case basis. They can indicate this on Form CMS-1500 in box 27. The vast majority of nonparticipating providers who bill Medicare choose to accept assignment for the claim being billed.
  • Nonparticipating providers do not have to bill your Medigap plan on your behalf.

Billing Options for Providers Who Accept Medicare

When a medical provider accepts assignment with Medicare, part of the agreement is that they will submit bills to Medicare on behalf of the person receiving care. So if you only see providers who accept assignment, you will never need to submit your own bills to Medicare for reimbursement.

If you have a Medigap plan that supplements your Original Medicare coverage, you should present the Medigap coverage information to the provider at the time of service. Medicare will forward the claim information to your Medigap insurer, reducing administrative work on your part.

Depending on the Medigap plan you have, the services that you receive, and the amount you’ve already spent in out-of-pocket costs, the Medigap plan may pay some or all of the out-of-pocket costs that you would otherwise have after Medicare pays its share.

(Note that if you have a type of Medigap plan called Medicare SELECT, you will have to stay within the plan’s network of providers in order to receive benefits. But this is not the case with other Medigap plans.)

After the claim is processed, you’ll be able to see details in your account . Medicare will also send you a Medicare Summary Notice. This is Medicare’s version of an explanation of benefits (EOB) , which is sent out every three months.

If you have a Medigap plan, it should also send you an EOB or something similar, explaining the claim and whether the policy paid any part of it.

What Is Medicare Assignment of Benefits?

For Medicare beneficiaries, assignment of benefits means that the person receiving care agrees to allow a nonparticipating provider to bill Medicare directly (as opposed to having the person receiving care pay the bill up front and seek reimbursement from Medicare). Assignment of benefits is authorized by the person receiving care in Box 13 of Form CMS-1500 .

If the person receiving care refuses to assign benefits, Medicare can only reimburse the person receiving care instead of paying the nonparticipating provider directly.

Things to Consider Before Choosing a Provider

If you’re enrolled in Original Medicare, you have a wide range of options in terms of the providers you can use—far more than most other Americans. In most cases, your preferred doctor and other medical providers will accept assignment with Medicare, keeping your out-of-pocket costs lower than they would otherwise be, and reducing administrative hassle.

There may be circumstances, however, when the best option is a nonparticipating provider or even a provider who has opted out of Medicare altogether. If you choose one of these options, be sure you discuss the details with the provider before proceeding with the treatment.

You’ll want to understand how much is going to be billed and whether the provider will bill Medicare on your behalf if you agree to assign benefits (note that this is not possible if the provider has opted out of Medicare).

If you have supplemental coverage, you’ll also want to check with that plan to see whether it will still pick up some of the cost and, if so, how much you should expect to pay out of your own pocket.

A medical provider who accepts Medicare assignment is considered a participating provider. These providers have agreed to accept Medicare’s fee schedule as payment in full for services they provide to Medicare beneficiaries. Most doctors, hospitals, and other medical providers do accept Medicare assignment.

Nonparticipating providers are those who have not signed an agreement with Medicare to accept Medicare’s rates as payment in full. However, they can agree to accept assignment on a case-by-case basis, as long as they haven’t opted out of Medicare altogether. If they do not accept assignment, they can bill the patient up to 15% more than the Medicare-approved rate.

Providers who opt out of Medicare cannot bill Medicare and Medicare will not pay them or reimburse beneficiaries for their services. But there is no limit on how much they can bill for their services.

A Word From Verywell

It’s in your best interest to choose a provider who accepts Medicare assignment. This will keep your costs as low as possible, streamline the billing and claims process, and ensure that your Medigap plan picks up its share of the costs.

If you feel like you need help navigating the provider options or seeking care from a provider who doesn’t accept assignment, the Medicare State Health Insurance Assistance Program (SHIP) in your state may be able to help.

A doctor who does not accept Medicare assignment has not agreed to accept Medicare’s fee schedule as payment in full for their services. These doctors are considered nonparticipating with Medicare and can bill Medicare beneficiaries up to 15% more than the Medicare-approved amount.

They also have the option to accept assignment (i.e., accept Medicare’s rate as payment in full) on a case-by-case basis.

There are certain circumstances in which a provider is required by law to accept assignment. This includes situations in which the person receiving care has both Medicare and Medicaid. And it also applies to certain medical services, including lab tests, ambulance services, and drugs that are covered under Medicare Part B (as opposed to Part D).

In 2021, 98% of American physicians had participation agreements with Medicare, leaving only about 2% who did not accept assignment (either as a nonparticipating provider, or a provider who had opted out of Medicare altogether).

Accepting assignment is something that the medical provider does, whereas assignment of benefits is something that the patient (the Medicare beneficiary) does. To accept assignment means that the medical provider has agreed to accept Medicare’s approved fee as payment in full for services they provide.

Assignment of benefits means that the person receiving care agrees to allow a medical provider to bill Medicare directly, as opposed to having the person receiving care pay the provider and then seek reimbursement from Medicare.

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare monthly enrollment .

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Annual Medicare participation announcement .

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Lower costs with assignment .

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Find providers who have opted out of Medicare .

Kaiser Family Foundation. How many physicians have opted-out of the Medicare program ?

Center for Medicare Advocacy. Durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies (DMEPOS) updates .

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Check the status of a claim .

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare claims processing manual. Chapter 26 - completing and processing form CMS-1500 data set .

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Ambulance fee schedule .

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Prescription drugs (outpatient) .

By Louise Norris  Louise Norris has been a licensed health insurance agent since 2003 after graduating magna cum laude from Colorado State with a BS in psychology.

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This guide outlines a simple, effective step-by-step approach to finding information for your assignment.

If you need individual help  please do not hesitate to contact Margaret Paterson, the Health Sciences Librarian.

Define your topic and develop your search strategy

Before you start searching, spend a few minutes thinking about your question. It might help to create a mind-map of your ideas so you can identify themes and connections between them as well as think of useful keywords for your search. You will do a more effective search by considering the following:

What synonyms or related words might usefully be included in my search? e.g. smoking/tobacco   teenagers/adolescents

What about search words with variant endings? This is specially important for finding both the singular and plural of search words. e.g. child* finds child/children/childhood Note that in many databases you can use an asterisk at the end of the root word to find other endings.

What about search words with different spellings? This is important when searching international sources. AskOxford provides a summary of the main differences between British and American spellings.

How do I connect my search words? Use OR   to connect synonyms and related words. Place brackets around words connected with or. e.g. ( smoking OR tobacco ). Use AND   when you want to focus your search by adding in additional words e.g. smoking AND health More information about connecting search words

Experiment with combinations of search words to find the ones that retrieve the best information for your topic.

Begin with recommended readings in LEARN

Check your LEARN course for recommended readings. 

If there is a course text, this will be in the Library High Demand collection. You can find these by entering your course code into MultiSearch.

Search Multisearch and limit to either eBook or Physical Books

- If you are looking for a specific book, enter an author's name or a few words from the book title

- If you are looking for a book on a topic, enter a few keywords

When you find a relevant book, click on the Subjects links in the catalogue record to find more books on your topic.

Browse the library shelves in the classification sequences for Health Sciences. Remember that the Library has an increasing number of e-books. 

Find journal articles

Journals are scholarly publications and are where you will find the latest research on a topic. Each issue contains a number of different articles by different authors. 

You can find journal articles by searching MultiSearch or one of the many specialist health science databases we subscribe to.

Find information on the Internet

The Internet can be a rich source of information, but not everything will be useful or appropriate for academic writing. Web resources should be carefully evaluated and used in conjunction with the scholarly resources provided by the Library. 

Health Sciences students may, for example, search the Web to find Government reports, statistics and policy documents.

Evaluate your sources

 Think critically about the information you find. Here are some tips for  evaluating your sources

Cite your sources

Avoid plagiarism by citing all the sources of information you use in your essay, using the APA citation style .

More on citing your sources .

Write your assignment

See our Writing Guides page for books that have useful hints for writing about Health Sciences subjects. Or contact the Academic Skills Centre  based in Central Library.

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185 Health Topics to Write about

Everybody knows that being healthy requires effort. We should exercise regularly and maintain a balanced diet. However, the reward is worth it. A healthy lifestyle prevents chronic illnesses and leads to better body performance. Besides, if you improve your physical well-being, your mental health will strengthen as well!

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In this article, we present 165 interesting health topics to write about. In our list, you’ll find ideas on fitness, wellness, and mental health, as well as medical healthcare topics for an essay. And don’t forget that with our custom writing service , you don’t have to worry about your assignments. If you need a helping hand, you can always count on us!

🔝 Top 10 Health Topics to Write About

  • ⚕️ Types of Health

🔬 Top 10 Healthcare Topics to Write About

  • 💭 Mental Health Topics
  • 💉 Healthcare Ethics
  • 👶 Child Health
  • 👴 Senior Health
  • 🧑‍🏭 Occupational Health
  • ⚖️ Personal Health & Wellness
  • 🌍 Global Health
  • 🌳 Environmental Health
  • 🏥 Health Policy
  • 😷 Public Health
  • 💊 Behavioral Health

🔍 References

  • Is gambling a disorder?
  • Why is air pollution a threat to health?
  • How to reduce the risk of pneumonia
  • Is anemia an indicator of poor nutrition?
  • The types of antimicrobial resistance
  • Risk factors for noncommunicable diseases
  • The main objective of occupational medicine
  • Is it possible to control CCHF infection in animals?
  • Why is preserved nature a prerequisite for good health?
  • The impact of congenital anomalies on community interaction

⚕️ Types of Health & Wellness

Did you know that health is highly complex? There are seven different types of well-being . To be truly healthy, you need to balance them all.

  • Physical wellness endorses healthy behavior patterns, proper exercise, and nutrition. It also covers abstaining from alcohol and cigarettes.
  • A person who is emotionally well can express their feelings adequately. They are capable of accepting and loving themselves as well as others.
  • Intellectual wellness is ensured by activating the mind. Stimulating activities include learning a new language, reading, or enjoying art.
  • A sense of belonging is crucial to social wellness . To be socially well, a person may contribute to their community or maintain trusting relationships.
  • A sense of meaning and purpose creates spiritual wellness . Individuals need to have faith in their moral principles. By meditating and spending time alone, you can get to know yourself better.

For emotional wellness.

  • Living in harmony with the Earth plays a vital role in our environmental well-being . People should be conscious of the environment. An example would be to conserve resources and minimize the use of chemicals.
  • A person needs to utilize their talents to achieve occupational wellness . Committing to a goal and working towards it helps to stay satisfied. Knowing what you want for your future creates a sense of purpose and direction.

You can write an essay about any of these types of health. In case you need more ideas, consult the following list of best healthcare topics.

  • Physical therapy for rehabilitation
  • When is health equity achieved?
  • The benefits of raising health taxes
  • Types of complementary medicine
  • Pros and cons of universal health care
  • The principles of health system governance
  • The challenges of workforce healthcare
  • The importance of health technology assessment
  • Difference between health promotion and prevention
  • How is sustainable development related to public health?

💭 Mental Health Topics to Write about

Our mental health primarily determines how we feel and think. It, in turn, affects our actions. In our fast-paced society, our minds have to face a lot of challenges. Stress-related disorders like burnout or depression are very common. Still, mental health is a vast field. If you are interested in psychological well-being, this section is for you.

  • Discuss the stigmatization of mental health problems in your community.
  • How can we prevent depression?
  • Why do people develop psychological disorders?
  • What is Seasonal Affective Disorder?
  • Why should society listen to the needs of mentally ill people?
  • How can you treat eating disorders in adults?
  • When is a psychiatric stay sensible?
  • What are the different forms of depression?
  • Describe the adverse effects of reading the news.
  • Examine the causes of anxiety disorders.
  • What is a manic episode?
  • How does OCD impact a patient’s life?
  • Analyze the connection between HIV/AIDS and mental health.
  • Discuss the use of medication to combat psychological issues.
  • Investigate how a mentally ill person influences their family members.

💉 Ethical Topics in Healthcare to Write About

Medical ethics come into play when we need to make a moral decision about health. An individual’s morals can be based on various principles. Physicians, patients, and family members all have different ethical obligations. Below are 15 argumentative topics concerning medical ethics:

  • What are ethical dilemmas in healthcare?
  • Is a person’s health more important than their autonomy?
  • Explain your position on euthanasia.

Four main principles of healthcare ethics.

  • What should a doctor do if a person refuses treatment for religious reasons?
  • If resources are depleted, how does a doctor determine which patients to treat?
  • Should the government force doctors to move to the countryside to ensure rural healthcare?
  • Who should be allowed to make medical decisions on a patient’s behalf?
  • Investigate situations when a doctor might have to ignore a patient’s right to privacy.
  • When can a life-sustaining treatment be stopped?
  • Discuss ethical concerns regarding nutrition.
  • Write about healthcare’s accessibility,disparity, and safety.
  • Do schools have to interfere if students display unhealthy behavior?
  • Must governments implement policies to motivate women to have children?
  • What are the ethical implications surrounding alternative medicine?
  • Should doctors be allowed to advertise their services?

👶 Child Health Topics to Write about

A child’s health includes not only their physical well-being. Meeting their social and mental needs is just as crucial for their development. On top of that, children require regularly scheduled check-ups. If you’re interested in writing about pediatric care, here are 15 compelling topics.

  • What is the best way to treat a baby with a fever?
  • How can you motivate your child to exercise?
  • What problems are associated with unhealthy eating in children?
  • Describe the causes of insomnia in toddlers.
  • Should frequent nightmares in children be a concern to parents?
  • Investigate what makes a minor’s behavior conspicuous.
  • Children and proper nutrition: a never-ending struggle.
  • How can you promote a healthy lifestyle for your child?
  • Examine how a nanny influences a child’s development.
  • Asthma and its side-effects in children.
  • What role does school education play in a child’s health?
  • Discuss how to give medicine to toddlers.
  • How can you support a child who has learning disabilities?
  • Explain how to promote a positive body image and prevent obesity in minors.
  • Describe the importance of play in child development.

👴 Senior Healthcare Topics to Write about

Seniors have their very own set of health rules. Primary problems related to elderliness are poor eyesight or hearing. Luckily, there are many ways to remain healthy at any age. Below we have collected 15 popular examples of health topics for seniors.

  • How do you stay active as you get older?
  • Investigate how older adults can stay connected to their community.
  • Write about healthy nutrition for the vulnerable aging population.
  • How can a person prevent their brain functions from deteriorating?
  • When do you know it is time to put someone into a nursing home?
  • Discuss the most common psychological problems of seniors.
  • What are the positive and negative attitudes to aging-related changes?
  • Describe ways of coping with memory loss.
  • How does arthritis impact a person’s life?

Mahatma Gandhi quote.

  • Explain how to prevent seniors from falling.
  • Does getting older automatically mean that your health declines?
  • What misconceptions does the general public have about aging?
  • Investigate how to prevent Alzheimer’s.
  • What does it mean to age well?
  • How do you ensure mental wellness in old age?

🧑🏭 Occupational Healthcare Topics to Write about

Occupational health problems occur not only during physically demanding labor. Any line of work can impact your health. Even merely sitting at the desk for too long can cause serious illnesses. This list of essay topics is all about occupational health:

  • Describe the necessary safety precautions at a construction site.
  • How can you ensure lab safety in the chemical industry?
  • What injuries are common for people working in the service industry?
  • Discuss the dangers of germ exposure in hospitals.
  • Examine why hearing problems can occur at work.
  • What equipment should an office worker have to guarantee their long-term health?
  • How can a person with chronic back problems return to work?
  • Investigate the potential hazards of working during pregnancy.
  • How can you prevent carpal tunnel syndrome in the workplace?
  • Analyze different types of protective equipment for electricians.
  • How do you prevent burnout in highly stressful job environments?
  • What are the causes of occupational respiratory diseases?
  • What should workers be aware of when laboring in cold weather?
  • How can employers take care of their employees’ mental health?
  • Examine the health risks faced by miners.

⚖️ Personal Health & Wellness Topics for an Essay

Personal wellness is much more than just your skincare routine. It also includes a proper diet and regular exercise. For a healthy body, you need to take care of your emotional and intellectual well being. Here are some questions and general ideas you can use for a paper on personal health:

  • What is the difference between health and wellness?
  • How can you ensure a healthy lifestyle?
  • Is plant-based nutrition healthier than eating meat?
  • Explore dieting and wellness dimensions.
  • How can you treat insomnia?
  • Investigate the different types of wellness.
  • Discuss the harmful effects of caffeine.
  • How much exercise is too much?
  • Analyze the importance of happiness.
  • What are the best ways to cope with stress?
  • Discuss yoga practices in history and today.

Wellness encompasses.

  • How can you achieve wellness through meditation?
  • What are the most common health problems youth encounters today?
  • How does learning a new language improve wellness?
  • Explore the consequences of sleep deprivation.

🌍 Global Health Topics to Write about

The term “global health” encompasses the study of health issues worldwide. Scientific research on this topic crosses national boundaries. Hence, the ultimate goal is to improve health on a global scale. Some of the most urgent global health topics include climate change, pandemics, and cancer.

Receive a plagiarism-free paper tailored to your instructions.

  • Examine the health effects of environmental change.
  • How can we prevent pandemics in the future?
  • What is the world’s healthiest country?
  • What are today’s most pressing global health issues?
  • Investigate how to reduce substance abuse worldwide.
  • What are the most important global health institutions?
  • Why is the global access to healthcare necessary?
  • Discuss the common causes of epidemics.
  • What can we do to ensure global environmental health?
  • How does the MSF organization work?
  • Compare different pandemics with each other.
  • Analyze the effects of vaccination on a global scale.
  • What does the WHO do?
  • Identify the most common causes of cancer globally.
  • How can we prevent violence across cultures?

🌳 Environmental Health Essay Topics

Humans are dependent on their environment . Thus, it is crucial for survival that our surroundings are healthy. To ensure it, we need to control our interactions with nature and prevent cataclysms. Have a glance at our list if you are looking for discussion points regarding environmental health:

  • How can we reduce air pollution?
  • What should be done with toxic waste?
  • What is the cleanest source of energy?
  • Examine the environmental benefits of recycling.
  • What causes poor water quality?
  • How can you make your home more eco-friendly?
  • Investigate how oil spills affect ecosystems.
  • Describe the leading causes of ozone depletion.

Emerging issues in environmental health.

  • Analyze how natural disasters are prevented.
  • How can a better infrastructure lead to a healthier environment?
  • What illnesses are called foodborne?
  • How can you ensure that the food you buy is safe?
  • Discuss what makes a healthy community.
  • Why is preparedness important?
  • What diseases are spread by vectors?

🏥 Health Policy Topics to Write About

Health policies are measures governments take to achieve specific healthcare goals. Such rules exist in many areas, including tobacco control, finance, and the quality of care. Amongst other things, they often aim at informing people.

  • What are some policies designed to protect employee health?
  • What do you think about vegetarian days in canteens?
  • Should recreational marijuana be legal?
  • Discuss if the traffic light rating system should be obligatory for all food items.
  • What is a reasonable legal age for consuming energy drinks?
  • Should smoking be banned in public?
  • How can we raise awareness about diabetes?
  • Discuss how workplaces can support breastfeeding.
  • How would a lower workload improve employee health?
  • Investigate when and how schools should start sex education.
  • Should vaccination be mandatory?
  • Examine the benefits of wearing surgical masks in public.
  • Should eating competitions be banned?
  • Analyze whether all restaurants should have a global rating system like hotels do.
  • Given the risk of skin cancer, should we restrict sunbathing?

😷 Public Health Essay Topics

Every government is concerned about the health of its citizens. Public health issues revolve around protecting and improving people’s well-being. Critical factors for this subject are encouraging healthy lifestyles and researching illnesses. Below we have collected 15 public health essay topics for your college assignment.

  • Should bars stop serving complimentary peanuts?
  • What makes sleep disorders a public health problem?
  • Discuss if governments should pay for the rehabilitation of drug addicts.
  • Are handshakes an avoidable public health risk?
  • Should gun violence in America be a public health issue?
  • Investigate the harms of vaping.
  • What is the best way to teach children about a healthy lifestyle?

Arlen Specter quote.

  • What are the leading causes of death in your community?
  • Should the means of birth control be free for teenagers?
  • How can we encourage people to eat healthier?
  • What are the risk factors that cause diabetes?
  • Discuss how America can achieve health equity.
  • Should abortions be illegal?
  • How do you prevent high levels of school-related stress?
  • Do Americans use too many antibiotics?

💊 Behavioral Health Topics for Papers

Behavioral and mental healths are closely related terms concerning human psychology. However, the notion of behavioral health covers a broader area. It involves all external forces that contribute to our mental well-being. These can encompass behavioral or habitual patterns as well as substances.

  • How do social media affect our behavior?
  • Write about CBT as a way of treating addiction.
  • What is a bad habit?
  • Discuss the common features of drug dependency and behavioral addictions.
  • Do video games make players more violent?
  • How do you recognize obsessive behavior?
  • Examine the different treatments for behavioral health problems.
  • What factors facilitate hoarding?
  • Are some addictions less harmful than others?
  • What is the role of the internet in internet addiction?
  • Is group therapy better than individual therapy?
  • What are typical stigmas regarding people with behavioral problems?
  • Investigate alternative treatments for behavioral health issues.
  • What are the most common addictions among Americans?
  • Discuss various problems a person with autism faces.

We hope these topics will help you learn something new and write a great essay!

Just 13.00 10.40/page , and you can get an custom-written academic paper according to your instructions

You might also be interested in:

  • 281 Best Health & Medical Research Topics
  • 280 Good Nursing Research Topics & Questions
  • 190+ Research Topics on Psychology & Communication
  • 200 Interesting Cause and Effect Essay Topics & Ideas
  • 300 Interesting Chemistry Topics & Writing Tips
  • 480 Sociology Questions & Topics with Bonus Tips
  • 240 Unique Geography and Geology Topics & Questions
  • Maintaining a Healthy Lifestyle: The Foundation For Peripheral Neuropathy
  • What Is Mental Health?:
  • Mental Health: WHO
  • Health Topics: NIMH
  • Overview of Medical Ethics: Vermont Ethics Network
  • Children’s Health: Medline Plus
  • Healthy Aging: HHS
  • Aging Well:
  • Health and Wellness: National Institutes of Health
  • Top 10 Most Common Health Issues: University of Rochester
  • Environmental Health Topics: National Environmental Health Organization
  • Environmental Health: Healthy People 2020
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assignment on health

Updated 10 April 2021

Subject Communication ,  Management

Downloads 93

Category Profession ,  Sociology

Topic Decision Making ,  Doctor ,  Friendship

If I were Doctor M

Before I arrived at the final decision, I would take a little time to think more in depth. I will try to compromise between making a decision that will impact the family of my friend and the conclusion that could make the insurance company lose faith in me if I lied to them. I will also determine the possibilities that would lead to the insurance company's discovery of Doctor J's health condition.

Now, because Dr. J and I have been friends since childhood, and Dr. J is my mentor, it's just obvious that I can't fail him. I would never like to see doctor J’s family suffer in the future and yet I had a chance of saving them earlier. Although I will be operating contrary to the way I am expected to serve, I will just have to do it for the sake of our friendship. I will hide everything from the insurance company and recommend doctor J for the cover.

The reason as to why I am confident that the company might not be able to find out the truth is that, the client’s medical records are his private information and no person can access them without the client’s consent (Herring, 2014). It is also the right of the client to refuse to share the medical records with any person (Herring, 2014). Because of this condition, I am sure that doctor J will be covered, and I would have saved his family from a financial crisis if doctor J can die years to come.

I have been in quite many dilemmas that made me spend much time thinking about what to go about the issues. For instance, I once had two friends, John and Cara, who were dating each other. Each of them would trust me with their secrets as they knew that I could never share their private information with any other person, not even with anyone among them. They were good to each other and spent much time together as lovebirds. It is unfortunate that John had a side chick called Julia whom he too loved so much. Sometimes, especially weekends John would also sneak to as well enjoy moments with Julia. It was painful that I am the only close friend to both John and Cara and that I knew what was happening behind Cara’s back but I could not do anything about it. If I would take a step and inform Cara about John's behavior, then I would be standing a chance of losing John as a friend I value. On the other hand, if Cara could come to find out about John's relationship with Julia and the worst of it all, that I knew about it, she would hate me for life. But now after weighing the two sides, I had no otherwise than to remain calm and watch how things go because I would never wish to risk our friendship.

Values always differ with situations at hand

Values govern the way people behave as well as coloring the way people view and react to their world (Hunink et al., 2014). Values have a significant impact on the choices made by individuals. Despite the changing of values over time, they represent an essential constituent of behavior. It is through the individual's values that that person's culture is defined and provides comprehensive social guidelines for the standards that are desirable (Hunink et al., 2014). People's choices that depend on the situations they are in are influenced by the values they hold.

Herring, J. (2014). Medical law and ethics. Oxford University Press, USA.

Hunink, M. M., Weinstein, M. C., Wittenberg, E., Drummond, M. F., Pliskin, J. S., Wong, J. B., & Glasziou, P. P. (2014). Decision making in health and medicine: integrating evidence and values. Cambridge University Press.

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The purpose of this assignment is to discuss the impact of an...

The purpose of this assignment is to discuss the impact of an environmental public health issue and make recommendations for policy change.

Research public health issues located on the American Public Health Association (APHA) website, found in the topic Resources. Select a public health issue related to an environmental issue within the U.S. health care delivery system and examine its effect on a specific population.

Based on the public health issue selected, address the following:

  • Describe the public health issue. Include the following information: (a) what population is affected, (b) at what level does it occur (local, state, or national), and (c) evidence about the issue supported by resources.
  • Discuss how the public health issue is addressed by the current policies.   
  • Include what changes you would propose to the existing policies. Describe what steps are required to initiate policy change.
  • Identify the necessary stakeholders required to initiate policy change (government officials, administrator) and explain the importance of their role, such as budgeting or funding.
  • Discuss the impact on the health care delivery system. 

Answer & Explanation

1. The public health issue selected for this assignment is air pollution, which is a major environmental health issue in the United States. Air pollution refers to the presence of harmful substances, such as particulates and gases, in the air. The population most affected by this issue includes individuals with respiratory diseases, children, and the elderly. According to the American Public Health Association (APHA), air pollution is a significant problem at the national level, with over 40% of Americans living in areas with unhealthy levels of air pollution. The issue is supported by various resources, including a report by the World Health Organization (WHO) that estimates that air pollution contributes to 4.2 million deaths globally each year.

2. The current policies addressing air pollution in the US include the Clean Air Act, which was passed in 1970 and has been amended several times since then. This act sets air quality standards for pollutants and gives the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the authority to regulate and enforce these standards. Additionally, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) program was established to monitor air quality and provide information to the public. The Clean Power Plan, introduced in 2015, also aims to reduce air pollution from power plants.

3. Despite these efforts, the issue of air pollution is still prevalent in the US, and there is a need for further policy changes. To address this, I would propose stricter regulations on industries, including power plants and factories, to reduce their emissions. The use of cleaner and renewable sources of energy should also be promoted. This can be achieved by offering incentives to companies that adopt environmentally friendly practices and imposing penalties on those who violate emission standards. Additionally, stricter enforcement of existing regulations and regular monitoring of air quality would be necessary.

To initiate these changes, legislation at the national level will be required. This can be achieved through the introduction of new laws or amendments to existing ones. Government officials and policymakers can propose and advocate for these changes. Public health activists and organizations, such as the APHA, can also play a crucial role in raising awareness and advocating for policy change. The public can also make their voices heard by contacting their representatives and urging them to take action on this issue.

4. The stakeholders required for initiating policy change on air pollution include government officials, environmental agencies, public health experts, and the public. Government officials, such as members of Congress and the EPA, play a key role in proposing and implementing new policies. Environmental agencies, such as the EPA, are responsible for monitoring air quality and enforcing regulations. Public health experts can provide evidence-based recommendations and support for policy changes. The public can also play a crucial role in pressuring policymakers to take action.

5. Air pollution has a significant impact on the health care delivery system. Exposure to air pollution can lead to respiratory illnesses, such as asthma, as well as cardiovascular diseases and even premature death. This not only puts a strain on the healthcare system but also increases healthcare costs. By addressing and reducing air pollution, there is potential to improve public health and decrease the burden on the healthcare system. This can also lead to cost savings for individuals and the healthcare system in the long run. 

Question 1.

  • Air pollution is a significant environmental public health issue that has a widespread impact on the population. It refers to the presence of harmful substances in the air, such as particulates and gases, which can come from various sources, including transportation, industries, and natural sources. The population most affected by air pollution includes individuals with respiratory diseases, children, and the elderly. These vulnerable populations are more susceptible to the adverse health effects of air pollution, as their respiratory and immune systems may not be able to handle the pollutants as well as a healthy adult.
  • Air pollution is a national-level issue, as over 40% of Americans live in areas with unhealthy levels of air pollution, according to the American Public Health Association (APHA). This issue is further supported by evidence from various resources, such as a report by the World Health Organization (WHO) that estimates that air pollution contributes to 4.2 million deaths globally each year. This evidence highlights the severity of the issue and the urgent need for action.

Question 2.

  • The current policies in place to address air pollution in the US include the Clean Air Act, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) program, and the Clean Power Plan. These policies aim to regulate and reduce emissions of harmful pollutants from various sources, such as power plants and factories, and to monitor air quality. The Clean Air Act, initially passed in 1970, has been amended several times to include stricter regulations and standards for pollutants. It also gives the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the authority to regulate and enforce these standards. The NAAQS program sets standards for six common pollutants and requires states to develop and implement plans to achieve and maintain these standards. The Clean Power Plan, introduced in 2015, aims to reduce air pollution from power plants by setting emissions standards and promoting the use of cleaner and renewable sources of energy.

Question 3.

  • Despite these efforts, air pollution remains a pressing issue, and there is a need for further policy changes to address it effectively. These proposed changes include stricter regulations on industries that contribute to air pollution, such as power plants and factories. Greater incentives should also be offered to companies that adopt environmentally friendly practices, such as using cleaner sources of energy, while penalties should be imposed on those who violate emission standards. Regular monitoring of air quality and stricter enforcement of existing regulations would also be necessary to identify sources of pollution and ensure compliance.
  • To initiate these changes, new laws or amendments to existing policies need to be introduced at the national level. Government officials and policymakers play a crucial role in proposing and advocating for these changes, while public health experts can provide evidence-based recommendations and support. The public also has a crucial role to play in raising awareness and advocating for policy change by contacting their elected representatives and urging them to take action on this issue.

Question 4.

  • To effectively initiate policy change on air pollution, it is critical to involve key stakeholders, such as government officials, environmental agencies, public health experts, and the public. Government officials, such as members of Congress and the EPA, have the authority to introduce new policies and regulations to address air pollution. These policymakers should also work closely with environmental agencies, such as the EPA, to monitor air quality and enforce regulations. Public health experts can provide valuable expertise and evidence-based recommendations to support policy changes. Additionally, the public can play a crucial role by advocating for change and making their voices heard through various channels, such as contacting their representatives and participating in public forums.

Question 5.

  • The impact of air pollution extends beyond the environment and has significant implications for public health and the healthcare delivery system. Exposure to air pollution can lead to various health issues, such as respiratory diseases and cardiovascular problems, as well as premature death. This not only puts a strain on the healthcare system but also increases healthcare costs for individuals and society. By addressing and reducing air pollution, there is a potential to improve public health outcomes and decrease the burden on the healthcare system. This can also lead to cost savings for individuals and the healthcare system in the long run, making it a crucial issue to address for the overall well-being of the population. Policies aimed at reducing air pollution can have a positive impact on public health, contributing to healthier and more productive communities. Additionally, reducing air pollution also has the potential to improve air quality and reduce the risk of multiple health issues, thus resulting in a more efficient and cost-effective healthcare delivery system. 

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English Compositions

Short Essay on Health [100, 200, 400 Words] With PDF

In today’s lesson, I will discuss how you can write short essays on Health within different word limits. All the essays will be written here with a simplistic approach for a better understanding of all students. 

Feature image of Short Essay on Health

Short Essay on Health in 100 Words

Health is an important aspect of one’s life. A person is considered healthy when he or she is free from illness or injury. Health can be categorised as physical health, mental health, emotional health, social health, et cetera. However, all these categories are interrelated.

While low physical activity can impact overall mental health, mental stress can adversely affect heart health and poor emotional health can deteriorate one’s quality of life. Being in good health enables a person to function optimally and live their life happily.

Some of the basic rules for maintaining good health include going to bed and waking up on time, exercising regularly, eating healthily and drinking at least eight glasses of water daily. 

Short Essay on Health in 200 Words

Health is one of the most important aspects of one’s life. One can be a billionaire but if he is not in good health, he can not enjoy the luxuries that money can buy. Thus, health is considered as the real wealth. Health can be categorised as physical health, mental health, emotional health, social health, et cetera.

However, all these categories are interrelated and impact each other. For example, not exercising regularly can make a person irritable and cause mental health problems, while chronic stress can lead to health diseases and diabetes. Poor emotional and psychological health can also make people withdrawn and impact their overall health. 

Being in good health enables a person to function optimally and live their life happily. When one feels healthy and is not troubled by pain or discomfort in the body, he can be more active, participate in various activities and be more present in the daily happenings. Being mentally in good health is also very important as suffering from anxiety, depression and other issues can severely deteriorate one’s quality of life.

One can easily improve his health by making some changes in his lifestyle. Some of the basic rules for maintaining good health include going to bed and waking up on time, exercising regularly, eating healthily and drinking a lot of water. 

Short Essay on Health in 400 Words

Health is a key aspect of one’s life. A person is considered healthy when he is free from all illness and injury and can conduct his life well. One can be a billionaire but if he is not in good health, he can not enjoy the luxuries that money can buy. Thus, health is considered as the real wealth and being in good health is very important. Health can be categorised as physical health, mental health, emotional health, social health, et cetera.

Everyone can be healthy but good health does not come without the necessary discipline and care. Going to bed and waking up on time, exercising regularly, avoiding junk food, eating healthily, drinking a lot of water and getting some sunlight are a few good habits that can improve one’s health. However, it cannot be achieved in a day. One needs to change their lifestyle and practice healthy habits daily. 

Sometimes, one’s external environment can also be the reason for their poor health. Living in shabby conditions, breathing in heavily polluted air, consuming unhygienic food and contaminated water can more often than not, result in bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Hence, cleanliness is an important factor if one wants to be healthy. One should also take care of their diet and include greens and other nutritious food, limit their caffeine intake, stop smoking and drinking as well as follow the basic health protocols. 

Good health is necessary if one wants to achieve their goal in life. One cannot study well or work hard when they are not feeling at ease or are suffering from pain. Adopting a healthy lifestyle makes us healthy and boosts our energy as well as immunity. Thus, good health is the key to enjoying a good life. 

In this session above, I have mentioned everything that could be necessary to write short essays on Health. Through the simple words and sentences, I hope now you have understood the entire context. If you still have any doubts regarding this session, kindly let me know through some quick comments. If you want to read more such essays on various important topics, keep browsing our website. 

Join our Telegram channel to get the latest updates on our upcoming sessions. Thank you. 

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assignment on health

The Assignment with Audie Cornish

Fiery twitter threads and endless news notifications never capture the full story. each week on the assignment, host audie cornish pulls listeners out of their digital echo chambers to hear from the people who live the headlines. from the sex work economy to the battle over what’s taught in classrooms, no topic is off the table. listen to the assignment every tuesday and thursday. .

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Last year the Army missed its recruitment goal; it had 65,000 spots to fill and came in 10,000 short. Audie talks with a former recruiter about what he saw as some of the challenges the Army faces when it comes to recruitment, including cultural shifts around everything from marijuana use to mental health. And we hear from Secretary of the Army Christine Wormuth about how the Army is responding to recruitment shortfalls. 

Health and Fitness Essay for Students and Children


500+ Words Essay on Health and Fitness

We have always heard the word ‘health’ and ‘fitness’. We use it ourselves when we say phrases like ‘health is wealth’ and ‘fitness is the key’. What does the word health really mean? It implies the idea of ‘being well’. We call a person healthy and fit when he/she function well physically as well as mentally.

Health And Fitness Essay

Factors Affecting our Health and Fitness

Good health and fitness is not something which one can achieve entirely on our own. It depends on their physical environment and the quality of food intake. We live in villages, towns, and cities.

In such places, even our physical environment affects our health. Therefore, our social responsibility of pollution-free environment directly affects our health. Our day-to-day habits also determine our fitness level. The quality of food, air, water all helps in building our fitness level.

Role of Nutritious Diet on our Health and Fitness

The first thing about where fitness starts is food. We should take nutritious food. Food rich in protein, vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates is very essential. Protein is necessary for body growth. Carbohydrates provide the required energy in performing various tasks. Vitamin and minerals help in building bones and boosting our immune system.

However, taking food in uneven quantity is not good for the body. Taking essential nutrients in adequate amount is called a balanced diet. Taking a balanced diet keep body and mind strong and healthy. Good food helps in better sleep, proper brain functioning and healthy body weight.

Include vegetables, fruits, and pulses in daily diet. One must have a three-course meal. Having roughage helps in cleaning inner body organs. Healthy food habit prevents various diseases. Reducing the amount of fat in the diet prevents cholesterol and heart diseases.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Impact of Exercise on our Health

Routine exercise helps improve our muscle power. Exercise helps in good oxygen supply and blood flow throughout the body. Heart and lungs work efficiently. Our bones get strong and joints have the pain free movement.

We should daily spend at least twenty minutes in our exercise. Daily morning walk improves our fitness level. We should avoid strenuous Gym activities. Exercise burns our fat and controls the cholesterol level in the body. Various outdoor games like cricket, football, volleyball, etc keeps our body fit. Regular exercise maintains our body shape.

Meditation, Yoga, and Health

Meditation and yoga are part of our life from ancient time. They not only make us physically fit but mentally strong as well. Meditation improves our concentration level. Our mind gets relaxed and thinking becomes positive.

A healthy mind is key for a healthy body. Yoga makes us stressfree and improves the endurance power of the mind. Yoga controls our blood pressure. With yoga, a strong bond with nature is established. Meditation is considered the best way to fight depression.

A person stays happier when he/she is fit and healthy. A fit and healthy person is less prone to chronic diseases. The healthy mind reacts better in a pressure situation. The self-confidence of a person is increased. Risk of heart failure is reduced drastically. With the increased immunity power body could fight cancerous cells. The intensity of the fracture is decreased with regular exercise.


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