For IEEE Members
Ieee spectrum, follow ieee spectrum, support ieee spectrum, enjoy more free content and benefits by creating an account, saving articles to read later requires an ieee spectrum account, the institute content is only available for members, downloading full pdf issues is exclusive for ieee members, access to spectrum 's digital edition is exclusive for ieee members, following topics is a feature exclusive for ieee members, adding your response to an article requires an ieee spectrum account, create an account to access more content and features on ieee spectrum , including the ability to save articles to read later, download spectrum collections, and participate in conversations with readers and editors. for more exclusive content and features, consider joining ieee ., join the world’s largest professional organization devoted to engineering and applied sciences and get access to all of spectrum’s articles, archives, pdf downloads, and other benefits. learn more →, access thousands of articles — completely free, create an account and get exclusive content and features: save articles, download collections, and talk to tech insiders — all free for full access and benefits, join ieee as a paying member., ieee spectrum is asking for your feedback.
Take the Survey →
To Free The Baltic Grid, Old Technology Is New Again
Spinning mega-machines will safeguard the baltic power grid as it desynchronizes from russia.
Coupling a flywheel [left] to Siemens' synchronous condenser [right] increases the stored kinetic energy.
The Baltic countries—Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia—recently accelerated a plan to cut the electrical chains that keep them tied to Russia. A technical lynchpin to their planned escape from the Moscow-controlled synchronous AC power zone is a constellation of synchronous condensers: free-spinning and fuel-free electrical generators whose sole purpose is to stabilize and protect power grids.
The Baltic states, all of which are members of the European Union and NATO, started freeing themselves from Russia’s electrical embrace almost a decade ago with the construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) connections to Finland, Sweden and Poland . Those alternative sources of electrical support ended the Baltics’ dependance on imported power from Russia and Belarus.
Now stabilizing equipment is preparing the grid to be able to physically separate from the giant grid to the East, and to synchronize instead with the continental European grid to the South. In 2019, funding from the European Union jumpstarted the required grid-strengthening upgrades required, and synchronization with Europe was scheduled for the end of 2025.
“Being on the Russian electricity grid is a risk for Estonian consumers.”
Cost increases have delayed a crucial second link with Poland and thus Europe to 2028, but the full-scale invasion of Ukraine and Russia’s ariael assaults on the Ukrainian grid boosted pressure on the Baltics to break away faster. In August the Baltic states reached consensus on a plan to switch grids no later than February of 2025.
As Estonian Prime Minister Kaja Kallas explained : “Russia’s aggression in Ukraine and its use of energy as a weapon proves that it’s a dangerous and unpredictable country, and therefore being on the Russian electricity grid is a risk for Estonian consumers.” The prime ministers, she said, agreed to, “leave the Russian network as soon as the technical capacity is in place.”
This is where synchronous condensers step in. Synchronous condensers (also called synchronous compensators) are essentially generators that, in normal operation, are spun by an AC grid’s power and synced to its frequency (rather than driven by their own fuel). When power plants and/or transmission lines shut down unexpectedly, the momentum in their spinning mass offers an instantaneous supply of energy that cushions the blow, thus protecting equipment and preventing outages.
“It’s like an airbag for the power grid,” says Ana Joswig , Portfolio Lifecycle Manager for synchronous condensers for market leader Siemens Energy , supplier for the nine synchronous condensers scheduled to be operating in the Baltics by the end of next year.
Joswig says the spinning machines provide three crucial grid-stabilizing services:
- Frequency regulation: When grid power crashes or surges, the device immediately releases or absorbs energy to minimize fluctuation in the AC frequency;
- Short circuit power: When the grid experiences a short circuit, the crashing voltage releases a tripling or more of current from rotating machines which signals breakers on the grid to activate and quickly isolate the fault; and
- Voltage support: Producing current and voltage that are out of phase generates so-called reactive power that pushes the local grid’s voltage up or down to stabilize system voltage and/or increase the flow of real power.
Synchronous convertors were first deployed in the early 20th century, but hey were rarely used because grid stabilization could be supplied by power plants with big spinning generators. But plants with steam and turbine-driven generators are increasingly being replaced by solar panels, wind turbines and batteries that deliver their energy via electronic converters. Hence a worldwide comeback for a technology that was invented over a century ago .
In recent decades AC grids are experiencing more events where synchronization breaks down.
Joswig says there’s been an extra growth spurt as the energy transition accelerated over the last several years: “Before, some grid operators told me there is no market for the synchronous condenser. Now they can not get enough.”
Synchronizing with Europe drives added need for grid services in the Baltics. Europe has very large power plants whose failure can cause larger disruptions than the Baltics have traditionally faced. And, notes Joswig, in recent decades AC grids are experiencing more events where synchronization breaks down, leaving some regions electrically isolated—a scenario that will be extra-relevant for the Baltics while it is operating with just one AC link to continental Europe.
When Spectrum profiled the re-emergence of synchronous condensers in 2015, there was a notable trend toward the conversion of steam generators as coal-fired and nuclear power plants shut down. Today’s notable tech trend, says Joswig, is the addition of flywheels weighing hundreds of tonnes to boost momentum. All nine of the Baltics’ synchronous condensers will have power-boosting flywheels, as she explains, equipping each installation with up to 2,200 megajoules of energy. That’s roughly equivalent to the kinetic energy of a 3,000 tonne train cruising at 100 kilometers per hour.
In addition to synchronous condensers and international links, the Baltics are further strengthening their electrical systems by upgrading control systems and adding and rebuilding transmission lines. Moving up the final line renovation, a circuit between Estonia and Latvia to be ready at the end of 2024, clinched the deal to accelerate synchronization with Europe.
Justinas Juozaitis, who heads the World Politics Research Group at Lithuania’s military academy, says Russian action forced the speed-up. For one thing, he says, Russia prepared faster for Baltic separation.
Russia and Belarus built new lines to strengthen their own grids. And Russia built four gas-fired power plants and an LNG import terminal in Kaliningrad, a Russian exclave on the Baltic Sea sandwiched between Poland and Lithuania. “By 2021 they had built the infrastructure and proved that Kaliningrad can operate independently,” says Juozaitis. That, he says, put Russia in a position to disrupt Baltic power without risk of blacking-out its own territory.
By the middle of 2022, the Baltics forged a protocol for “emergency synchronization,” by which it can switch to Europe’s grid in a matter of hours if necessary. The emergency plan calls for activation of transformers at the Polish-Lithuanian border, converting the country’s HVDC link to an AC interconnection, and provision of extra frequency regulation via plants in Sweden and Finland.
Juozaitis says the fact that European grid operators fast-tracked and completed Ukraine’s synchronization within one month of Russia’s invasion provides confidence that the Baltics can pull off an emergency switch. And he says recent events highlight the importance of being ready: mechanical damage sustained by a natural gas pipeline from Finland to Estonia and by telecommunications cables linking Estonia to Sweden. They appear to have been struck around the same time in early October.
Finnish authorities investigating the pipeline damage say their prime suspect is a Chinese-flagged container ship, the Newnew Polar Bear ; Estonian authorities have said they are tracking the Sevmorput, a nuclear-powered Russian cargo ship , that was also in the vicinity of the pipeline and cables when they sustained damage.
“The Russian federation has the motive, and the chronology is very very strange,” notes Juozaitis. Russia and China have denied sabotaging the equipment.
Juozaitis says NATO has already stepped up naval patrols and other surveillance in the Baltic to protect infrastructure. But he says the Baltics also need to practice deterrence. As he puts it: “They must be signalling that if the Russians continue tampering with submerged infrastructure there are going to be consequences.”
- Zombie Coal Plants Reanimated to Stabilize the Grid ›
- Fear of Russia Drives High-Voltage Power Projects in the Baltics ›
- How Russia Sent Ukraine Racing Into the “Energy Eurozone” ›
- Baltic states set to decouple from Russian power grid in early 2025 ... ›
- The 3 Baltic nations plan to accelerate their exit from Russia's power ... ›
- Baltics would switch to European grid in a day if Russia cuts power ... ›
Peter Fairley has been tracking energy technologies and their environmental implications globally for over two decades, charting engineering and policy innovations that could slash dependence on fossil fuels and the political forces fighting them. He has been a Contributing Editor with IEEE Spectrum since 2003.
Video Friday: Beyond the Limit
Notice to membership, organic electronics mimic retinal neurons, related stories, the many planned moon landings of 2023, e.u.: climate-proof grids require more transparency, is russia’s hypersonic missile vulnerable.
- Schools directory
- Resources Jobs Schools directory News Search
6 Figure grid references worksheet
Age range: 11-14
Resource type: Worksheet/Activity
15 February 2021
- Share through email
- Share through twitter
- Share through linkedin
- Share through facebook
- Share through pinterest
This worksheet combines 6 figure grid references with geographical knowledge of Europe. Students will be both following 6 figure grid references and finding them out. This worksheet has been used with years 7-10. Students will need a map of Europe displayed on the board (or most students have a map of Europe in their school planners).
Creative Commons "Sharealike"
Your rating is required to reflect your happiness.
It's good to leave some feedback.
Something went wrong, please try again later.
Empty reply does not make any sense for the end user
Report this resource to let us know if it violates our terms and conditions. Our customer service team will review your report and will be in touch.
Not quite what you were looking for? Search by keyword to find the right resource:
- United Kingdom
- European Russia
Researchers Say Solar Is Getting So Good That People Could Start Quitting the Electric Grid
Half of homes in europe could've gotten all the energy they needed from rooftop solar panels in 2020., solar side up.
Researchers claim that in 2020, an astonishing 53 percent of all free-standing homes in Europe could have run entirely on their own rooftop solar panels and gotten all the energy they needed that year.
As detailed in a new study published in the journal Joule , the researchers evaluated the self-sufficiency potential for 41 million single-family buildings by studying around 4,000 that they considered representative of their regions in terms of local climate, architecture, and other factors.
From there, the researchers calculated cost-efficient ways these households could generate their own energy using rooftop solar panels alongside other measures like insulation, batteries, and small wind turbines.
All told, the findings paint a surprisingly sunny outlook. Using local rooftop solar energy alone, the researchers expect a jump to 75 percent of European homes being able to be self-sufficient by 2050.
Things get shadier when you consider the economic feasibility of going off-grid, however. It's heavily region-dependent, with sun-soaked Mediterranean countries like Malta and Cyprus beating out the economic solar potential of northern nations like Finland and Norway.
Beyond their climate, other regions eked out an edge with the construction style of their buildings. Denmark, Slovenia, and the Netherlands all have larger rooftops, meaning more room for solar panels. There's no one-size-fits-all solution, in other words.
Regardless of where you live, though, switching to local, self-sufficient solar will come with a significant premium, costing up to 50 percent more than staying with the energy grid, the researchers estimated. If you're climate conscious and have the means, though, it may well be worth considering.
"Our results show that even in 2050 going off-grid won't be the most economic choice, but it could make sense to invest in these kinds of self-sufficient buildings if you are willing to pay more for self-sufficiency," said study lead author Max Kleinebrahm, an energy economics researcher at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany, in a statement about the work.
Still, for solar holdouts, there may be a happy, cheaper medium in partial self-sufficiency. In one example, the researchers estimated a building in Germany would be "cost-optimal" at 73 percent self-sufficiency in 2020, and at 78 percent at the century's midpoint.
But this, too, comes with a drawback. "At a macroeconomic scale it would be less efficient to have a large number of households abandoning the grid rather than supporting it," Kleinebrahm said, as partially self-sufficient systems put a greater strain on the grid.
Furthermore, a mass grid exodus could drive up energy prices for those unable to afford the switch, to name just one potential economic consequence.
So rooftop solar energy may be more than capable of powering millions of households — but for a more efficient solution at the macro scale, it might be worth changing what powers the energy grid rather than ditching it.
More on solar: Study Finds That Solar Power Is on Track to Dominate Electric Grids
Share This Article
Articles may contain affiliate links which enable us to share in the revenue of any purchases made.
Registration on or use of this site constitutes acceptance of our Terms of Service.
© Recurrent Ventures Inc, All Rights Reserved.
We've detected unusual activity from your computer network
To continue, please click the box below to let us know you're not a robot.
Why did this happen?
For inquiries related to this message please contact our support team and provide the reference ID below.
europe map worksheet
Resource types, all resource types, europe map worksheet.
- Rating Count
- Price (Ascending)
- Price (Descending)
- Most Recent
Europe 50 Countries Study - worksheets with maps and flags for each country
Physical Geography of Europe Worksheet - Map Labeling
Europe Create a Map Worksheet | Absolute and Relative Location Map Clues
Political map of Europe and worksheets
Europe Map Test: Map of Europe Quiz w/ Practice Worksheet & Answer Key
UK AND EUROPE - WORKSHEETS & MAP REFERENCE MATERIAL
Map of Europe Worksheet
- Word Document File
Mapping Europe Worksheet Bundle in vibrant color and printer-friendly white (19)
Europe Map Worksheet and Self-grading Quiz
- Google Drive™ folder
Countries of Europe "Culture Map " Worksheet Packet (52 Total)
Europe Map Worksheet
Europe - Blank Map - Map Fill in Worksheet - Social Studies
Europe Maps and Worksheets
Western Europe Map Labeling Worksheet
Where in the World Scavanger Hunt & Map Activity Physical Geography of Europe
- Google Apps™
Geography of Europe Map Practice Activities | Print and Digital | Google
World Map : World Map Quiz (Test) and Map Worksheet | 7 Continents and 5 Oceans
- Easel Activity
WWII Mapping Activity: Europe & Pacific Theaters
Geography of Europe
- Internet Activities
Concentration Camps in Europe during WW II Map Activity (Print and Digital)
MAP OF EUROPE PRINTABLE COLORING PAGE WITH COUNTRIES
Congress of Vienna Worksheet
Geography of Europe Reading Comprehension Worksheet Continent Studies
Europe Countries and Capitals Map Activity Bundle (Print and Digital)
- We're hiring
- Help & FAQ
- Student privacy
- Terms of service
Russian inflation rises at fast pace again in October
An employee sorts apples at a food market, which operates once a week on Saturday, in the Russian southern city of Stavropol, March 7, 2015. REUTERS/Eduard Korniyenko/File photo Acquire Licensing Rights
Nov 10 (Reuters) - Inflation in Russia quickened in October, data from the state statistics service Rosstat showed on Friday, justifying the central bank's decision to hike interest rates to 15% last month as it tries to bring price rises under control.
The central bank has now raised rates by 750 basis points since July, including an unscheduled emergency hike in August, under pressure from a weak rouble, tight labour market and strong consumer demand.
In October, annual inflation stood at 6.69% year-on-year, up from 6.0% a month earlier and in line with expectations of analysts polled by Reuters. The central bank sees inflation ending this year at 7.0%-7.5%, well above its 4% target.
On a monthly basis, the consumer price index (CPI) rose 0.83% in October after a 0.87% increase in September, the data showed, coming just below analysts' expectations of a 0.9% increase. That was the second-fastest monthly increase in 18 months.
Central Bank Governor Elvira Nabiullina this week said inflation pressure had peaked in the third quarter, but will only start decreasing next spring.
The bank needs its monetary policy, which operates with a lag, to help cool price rises, especially as prices rose sharply in early November.
Days after October's rate hike, between Oct. 31 and Nov. 7, consumer prices jumped 0.42%, separate Rosstat data showed.
Russian households regularly cite inflation as a key concern, with many having no savings after a decade of economic crises, while rising prices dragged living standards down across the country.
Rosstat gave the following details:
Reporting by Darya Korsunskaya and Alexander Marrow; Editing by Toby Chopra
Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.
Investors pull record sums from Saudi in Middle East fund flight
BP, Edison, Shell ask US, EU to intervene in Venture Global LNG dispute
Yellen warns Beijing: Chinese firms aiding Russia face 'significant consequences'
Hedge funds short US financial stocks at near record levels, Goldman Sachs says
More from Reuters
China's Singles Day sales festival wraps up with e-commerce giants reporting sales growth
Alibaba Group reported that its Chinese e-commerce platforms Tmall and Taobao recorded "positive" year-on-year growth over this year's Singles Day sales period, which wrapped up at midnight on Saturday.
Exclusive: Exxon aims to begin lithium production by 2026 in Arkansas
Turkish Airlines talks to Airbus about ordering 355 new jets
- Donate to AI
- Accreditation - Licensing
- Media Resources
- COVID Protocols
- Web Accessibility Statement
- QUICK LINKS
- How to Enroll
- Career Services
The Art Institutes is a system of private schools throughout the United States. Programs, credential levels, technology, and scheduling options vary by school and are subject to change. Not all programs are available to residents of all U.S. states. Administrative office: The Art Institutes, 6600 Peachtree Dunwoody Road N. E., Atlanta, GA 30328 © 2021 The Arts Institutes International LLC. All rights reserved.
*Credentials and experience levels vary by faculty and instructors.
Tinggalkan Balasan Batalkan balasan
Alamat email Anda tidak akan dipublikasikan. Ruas yang wajib ditandai *
Can I pay after you write my essay for me?
Connect with the writers
Once paid, the initial draft will be made. For any query r to ask for revision, you can get in touch with the online chat support available 24X7 for you.
Some attractive features that you will get with our write essay service.
Grab these brilliant features with the best essay writing service of PenMyPaper. With our service, not the quality but the quantity of the draft will be thoroughly under check, and you will be able to get hold of good grades effortlessly. So, hurry up and connect with the essay writer for me now to write.
My Custom Write-ups
We select our writers from various domains of academics and constantly focus on enhancing their skills for our writing essay services. All of them have had expertise in this academic world for more than 5 years now and hold significantly higher degrees of education. Once the writers get your topic in hand, only after thorough research on the topic, they move towards the direction to write it. They take up information from credible sources and assure you that no plagiarism could be found in your writing from our writing service website.
Who will write my essay?
On the website are presented exclusively professionals in their field. If a competent and experienced author worked on the creation of the text, the result is high-quality material with high uniqueness in all respects. When we are looking for a person to work, we pay attention to special parameters:
- work experience. The longer a person works in this area, the better he understands the intricacies of writing a good essay;
- work examples. The team of the company necessarily reviews the texts created by a specific author. According to them, we understand how professionally a person works.
- awareness of a specific topic. It is not necessary to write a text about thrombosis for a person with a medical education, but it is worth finding out how well the performer is versed in a certain area;
- terms of work. So that we immediately understand whether a writer can cover large volumes of orders.
Only after a detailed interview, we take people to the team. Employees will carefully select information, conduct search studies and check each proposal for errors. Clients pass anti-plagiarism quickly and get the best marks in schools and universities.
There is no doubt that education plays an important role in people's lives. At a very young age, people begin spending time in school to acquire the basic things necessary in life including reading and writing. They progress to more complicated lessons as time goes on. However, the most important education that a person can receive would probably be tertiary education. This is also known as college education where people are able to pick an area or field that they want to specialize in.
The primary purpose of a college education would be for a person to acquire the necessary skills and knowledge in his or her chosen career and become fully prepared for the real world. For the students, a college education is a means of pursuing their dreams and ambitions in life (Borade, 2009). There are many people who believe that having a bachelor's degree will present more opportunities for them. Although there are several individuals who have become successful even without finishing their college education, it is still more effective if people graduate from college, especially if education is all that they have.
Nowadays, companies and employers prefer to hire individuals who have college degrees and would pay even more if they have masterals or doctorate degrees. Having a college degree increases individuals' chances of being hired in the corporate world rather than having average and low-paying jobs. “For a parent, the very purpose of a good college education is to enable the child to probe the realms of thought and access real higher learning” (Borade, 2009). Parents only want the best for their children.
Order custom essay Purpose of College Education with free plagiarism report
Physical Education & Exercise Science
Student-Focused Career-Driven ® services including academic advising and tutoring, financial aid experts, career services, and more.
College of Education
Since 1887, the College of Education (COE) at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University has played a role in the state's future. The College of Education was the first and only college, department, or major within the university at its inception in 1887. The COE continues to celebrate superior accomplishments by its students, faculty, staff, and graduates.
Q&A: Fostering Success
Specifically, buying papers from us you can get 5%, 10%, or 15% discount.
Viola V. Madsen
How can I be sure you will write my paper, and it is not a scam?
10 question spreadsheets are priced at just .39! Along with your finished paper, our essay writers provide detailed calculations or reasoning behind the answers so that you can attempt the task yourself in the future.
- Research Paper
- Research Proposal
- Scholarship Essay
- Speech Presentation
- Statistics Project
- Thesis Proposal