Chandler's Ford Today

## Peculiar British House Numbering System

May 23, 2014 By chippy minton 10 Comments

Something that visitors to Britain find confusing (apparently) is our system of house numbering . You hear anecdotes such as “I was looking for number 127, so walked down the even side of the street to 126 and crossed over. But the house opposite 126 wasn’t 127 at all. It was 233 – I’d missed 127 half a mile back”.

It’s quite simple really. Buildings are numbered in sequential order, odds on one side and evens  on the other.

However, plot sizes are not all the same. Buildings on one side of the road could have wider frontages, or there could be a large building such as a school or office block. Road junctions can take up the space of several houses. So yes, by the time you get to 127 on one side, the house numbering on the other could well be out-of-synch.

So why do we have odds on one side and evens on the other? It’s so the postman can walk all down one side to deliver to the odd-numbered houses, and then back up the other to deliver to the even-numbered.  He doesn’t have to keep crossing the road.

Of course, there are numerous examples where this convention doesn’t apply. I’m sure we’ve all been caught out looking for a house that apparently doesn’t exist. I was once looking for a number 18. The street numbers started off conventionally enough – 2, 4, 6, 8 10. Then there was an alleyway leading to a set of garages so, of course, the house after the alley would be number 12. It wasn’t. It was number 32. No, it wasn’t Diagon Alley. Where had ten houses gone? I walked down the alley and found more houses. Numbers 14, 16 and, er, 20. I then spied a small footway that led to… number 22. But hidden round a corner and down another passageway (and by now I no longer felt that I was in the original street at all) I found number 18.

One of the streets in Whitchurch has an interesting quirk. Halfway along, the house numbers reset to 1. The reason? The road name changes from “Newbury Street” to “Newbury Road”. No warning, no indication – not even any street name signs. Just a change in house numbering. The road name changes, incidentally, because that is the limit of the medieval town. “Street” for thoroughfares inside the town; “road” for those outside. All the roads leading out of the town do this – but it’s only Newbury Street / Road where the house numbers start again from 1.

Would any other country use a building numbering system that is so complicated that signs such as these were needed?

What’s happened to house numbers 22 to 31?

Oh, you get to those via another road –

## Odd numbers between 25 and 27?

This one confuses me – what other odd numbers are there between 25 and 27?

I once did some work on an IT system for a commercial estate agency. In the world of commercial buildings things can get even more complicated. For example, the occupier of an office block might rename the building after the company – Amalgamated Durables House, for example. But if the occupier changes, the name of the building will change – so you have a different address for the same building. At the other end of the scale, the building might be knocked down and rebuilt to a different design. So now you have a different building with the same address.

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I've lived in Chandler's Ford and Eastleigh for most of my working life, having been brought up in the south Midlands, and schooled in the Home Counties.

I work in IT, and my hobbies include bell ringing, walking, cycling and running.

I enjoy live theatre and music, and try to watch many of the shows that are performed in the Eastleigh area.

May 23, 2014 at 4:40 pm

Excellent research – you’ve managed to entertain while explaining a very difficult topic! Poor postmen – how do they do it everyday? What about our local paper boys and girls? What are their strategies? I’ve found the Kingsway sign the most confusing in Chandler’s Ford.

May 24, 2014 at 10:50 am

I think that as paper boys and girls deliver only to a few properties, it’s not such a problem.

Streets that have names rather then numbers are the worst. When I was a kid I used to deliver mail from my dad’s work around the town. Finding some houses was so difficult that we went round the streets to record the names of each house and get a list of them in order.

November 27, 2018 at 12:27 am

From the photo of the Kingsway Sign, it appears to be at the junction with King’s Road, by the school … this section, of course, never was Kingsway … it used to be King’s Lane from King’s Road through to Brownhill Road … Kingsway started at Brownhill Road and ran right up to Hocombe Road …

When the lane was renamed ‘Kingsway’ were all the numbers changed in the original Kingsway, or did they start again at Brownhill ?

May 24, 2014 at 10:42 am

In out-of-town areas in New Zealand, properties are numbered as the distance (in metres) from the road junction. Makes finding houses really easy.

November 27, 2018 at 12:44 am

In Western Australia, as in New Zealand, they use the ‘Brazilian System’ of numbering of all ‘out of town centre’ roads, measured from a datum point, in metres, with all numbers ending with 5 or 0, the 5’s being on one side of the road and with 0’s on the other … a much simpler system, the only problem for strangers to the area sometimes can be knowing where the ‘datum point’ is … ‘Town Centres’ use the conventional numbering system, with odds one side, evens on the other …

November 26, 2018 at 6:28 pm

I was foxed when in Piccadilly in London I saw that number 1 was alongside number 2 (on the same side) and opposite number 500! Apparently one side goes from 1 to 250, and the other side (in opposite direction) from 251 to 500.

July 14, 2022 at 9:33 am

The explanation for house numbering makes no sense to me.

If the houses were in sequential order, the postie can deliver 1, 2, 3, 4 etc as easily as they could doing 2, 4, 6, 8.

July 14, 2022 at 6:06 pm

But if they are 1, 2, 3 down one side of the road, what numbers would be on the other side? If you just turned round at the end of the road and carried on, the postie would have to know what number is at the end, and walk the length of the road twice. having odds on one side and evens on the other, the postie can cross the road, and it doesn’t matter if the houses on each side of the road are not exactly opposite.

July 27, 2022 at 6:13 pm

Entertaining, but I wonder what visitors to Britain you talked about?

Most countries I know, at least in Europe, have the same basic system: sequential odd numbers on one side and even numbers on the other side. The odd and even numbers would only match when all buildings had the same size, when all crossings are at the same place at both sides and when there were never changes in the numbering due to rebuilding or demolitions. That is rarely the case. When I would cross the street where I grew up in the Netherlands, the house number on the other side of the road could also be considerably higer or lower. And there are several confusing exceptions to the basic system as well.

The circular numbering which Paul William Dixon described above, is known as ‘horse shoe numbering’; it seems to be quite common in some German city centres.

[…] told me that the main reason for the change was that the Chandler’s Ford Vicarage actually doesn’t ‘exist’ in many satellite maps used by many delivery companies. The Vicarage is not featured in those […]

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## Sell House Fast

Our services, our locations, what the uk's most popular house numbers really mean.

## We Interviewed Celebrity Psychic and Numerologist, Inbaal Honigman, to Determine What the UK’s Most Popular House Numbers Really Mean...

It turns out, re-painting your home, re-carpeting, and making your home look spick and span won’t sell your home, but your door number will! (We’re just kidding).

We conducted research to determine which house numbers sell the most in the UK, whilst working alongside Celebrity Psychic and Numerologist to discover what these numbers mean for you and your family.

The research was conducted by compiling data from Price Paid Index, and the Land Registry to determine which house numbers here in the UK are selling the most, bestselling, most expensive, sold for less money, and sold for the most money. Collecting data from the Price Paid Index and Land Registry gives access to details regarding the sales of property here in the UK over the last 12 months.

This wasn’t enough for us though, we wanted to gain a deeper understanding of these numbers and what they mean for those living in these homes, it could be the reason they are doing so well on the market…

Find out using our calculator!

## Here are our findings:

If you live at number 3, congratulations, you have the most sellable door number in the whole UK!

Number 3 proved to be the best-selling house number in the UK, selling a staggering 2,421 times between 2021 and 2022

Number 39 proved to be the most expensive house to buy and complete on, in London, Chelsea, and Kensington

Number 200 sold over 100 times in the last 12 months, selling at an average £369,000

Lower house numbers are popular, but tend to sell for less

Houses with triple figures were considered the most valuable houses, with Number 680 selling for £904,000

## But what does this really mean?

Inbaal honigman (she/her), celebrity psychic and numerologist comments:.

"The number 3 should come as no surprise, for being the most popular new-home door number. In numerology, 1 symbolises one single person, 2 is a couple, and baby makes 3 - the number three is all about growing the family and tells us about a new addition. The older ladies are known for saying 'New House, New Baby' and nothing embodies this quite like the number 3.

So many concepts come in threes - beginning, middle, end, or birth, life, death - or that infamous new home sign, live, laugh, love - the trinity as a symbol shows us that there's always a next step, always a next stage, and moving house is a massive life change, and fits perfectly into the symbolic meaning of the number 3.”

“The number 39 is just another way of saying 3, for numerologists! First of all, when we reduce the digits to a single number, we add the separate values. 3+9=12. We do it again, and 1+2=3. We reduce the number down to its singular value and we have 3, but this isn't just a regular 3. The digits that combine to make the number 39 are unbelievably auspicious. The number 3 is obviously appropriate, but the number 9 is 3 times 3. This is all the meanings as above, squared! As a door number, 39 is heavy with symbolism, all relating to the primary number 3.”

“The number 200 is more subtle. It has three digits, so the number 3, the most auspicious door number, is never far from our mind. When we add all the numbers together, 2+0+0=2. The number 2 is a very spiritual number, and incredibly romantic. This door number would suggest a couple who is deeply in love.

Since 2 means a pair, and a pair means a relationship, then what we have here is a one-on-one situation, with two people who listen only to each other. The double zero shows us that the couple living here won't listen to outsiders and won't engage in gossip or badmouthing one another. Everything is plain to see, everything is out in the open. Clean laundry out on the line and the curtains are open at all times!”

“680 is a fascinating door number. Many people move for family reasons of course - marriage, baby, living closer to the grandkids. But there is also a sizable portion of relocators who do it for business. They may want to live closer to work, or in a bigger house with a home office, or moving because they've already found great success. Here, the digit 8 is a wonderful number for business, stability, and financial security. The digit 6 represents success, things coming together, living on your own terms.

Having a zero there shows that there are no extra influences - no failure waiting to bite. The full number comprises three digits, which is the common thread of all of those top door numbers, again the 3. When we add the ingredients together to reduce the number to a single digit, it is 6+8+0=14 and then 1+4=5. The energy of the number 5 is about having everything we need in this home, it could be our final address. Like the five senses, it's a perfect set. This will be a home that will serve us both in work and in life."

Check out Inbaal's website here!

## Alexandra Ventress

Alexandra is a Content Producer who enjoys writing articles, finding out about the property market, keeping you up to date with the latest trends.

## How Do Houses Get Numbered?

By kara kovalchik | nov 22, 2013.

You’d think that if you lived on a small cul-de-sac with only four houses, it would be simple: The house numbers would simply be one, two, three and four. But Government is not about “simple.”

Every municipality has its own system, but most follow one of two systems: continuous numbering, or hundred-block. Both systems are blocked out on grids, and both have a “baseline,” or zero point. That is the point where addresses will start, and you’ll find either 1 Main Street or 100 Main Street, depending on the system. Continuous numbering involves a formula wherein the local government first determines how many addresses are to be contained in one mile. Say the number is 1000; divide that by 5280 (the number of feet in one mile), and it equals approximately one address number every five feet.

In a hundred-block system, addresses are plotted out on a grid, where it dictates that the house at point XY is number 100, and the numbers increase sequentially within the same block. The grid is usually carefully broken down into X number of houses comprising a block, and are mapped out as the “200 block” or “400 block” of Elm Street.

Of course, add into the above formulae the further mandates of odd/even numbering based on east/west or north/south streets, and it’s enough to convince you to not choose a career in civil engineering.

## Property expert shares ‘the most sellable house number in the UK’

Looking to sell your house if you have a certain door number you'll be able to sell it quickly according to new research., a place in the sun: couple refuse to continue property viewing.

It turns out, that re-painting your home, re-carpeting, and making the interior modern won’t sell your home, but your door number will! The Property Buying Company researched what are the UK’s highest-selling house numbers, alongside which number is the most expensive to buy, and which house numbers are considered the most valuable across the UK.

## Related articles

Houses or flats with the number 200 were sold over 100 times in the last 12 months, selling at an average of £369,000.

In addition, number 39 proved to be the most expensive house to buy and complete, in London, Chelsea, and Kensington.

As for what the most valuable houses are, those with triple-figure door numbers like number 680, which on average sold for £904,000.

Inbaal Honigman, Celebrity Psychic and Numerologist commented on the findings.

She said: “The number three should come as no surprise, for being the most popular new-home door number.

“In numerology, one symbolises one single person, two is a couple, and baby makes three - the number three is all about growing the family, and tells us about a new addition.

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“The older ladies are known for saying 'New House, New Baby' and nothing embodies this quite like the number three.

“So many concepts come in threes - beginning, middle, end, or birth, life, death - or that infamous new home sign, live, laugh, love - the trinity as a symbol shows us that there's always a next step, always a next stage, and moving house is a massive life change, and fits perfectly into the symbolic meaning of the number three,” she added.

“The number 39 is just another way of saying three, for numerologists,” Inbaal explained.

“As a door number, 39 is heavy with symbolism, all relating to the primary number three.

“The number 200 is more subtle. It has three digits, so the number three, the most auspicious door number, is never far from our mind.

“When we add all the numbers together, 2+0+0=2. The number two is a very spiritual number, and incredibly romantic.

“This door number would suggest a couple who is deeply in love,” the expert said. “Since two means a pair, and a pair means a relationship, then what we have here is a one-on-one situation, with two people who listen only to each other.

“The double zero shows us that the couple living here won't listen to outsiders and won't engage in gossip or badmouthing one another.

“Everything is plain to see, everything is out in the open. Clean laundry out on the line and the curtains are open at all times!”

READ MORE:  Mrs Hinch fans share best way to clean bathroom tile grout - ‘so easy’

Mathew McCorry, Manager at The Property Buying Company commented on the results.

He said: “There are so many factors that determine how desirable a home is, and how quickly it will sell, our house numbers alone aren’t the be-all and end-all, so don’t worry if your number didn’t make the grade.

“This piece of research is interesting for us to understand, and we as a team decided to delve into the statistics following a surge in sales of houses at number three!

“We have also seen that 33 percent of cash buy sales are looking to buy elsewhere, 17 percent are selling a buy to let, and 19 percent are looking for a cash release from their sale.”

As for what the best time of year is to sell, each season has pros and cons.

## Nutty Numbering: How Are House Addresses Determined?

The methodology behind street address numbering.

How are house address numbers chosen? Photo: ms.ark via cc/Flickr

At some point, we’ve all pointed out how scattered and unsystematic house numbers are. Addresses don’t increase at steady increments; three houses in the same neighborhood can share the same number; numbers suddenly switch from decreasing to increasing midway down a road. Why aren’t houses on a street just numbered 1, 2, 3, 4?

It’s a complicated, confusing system that varies from area to area, but here are the basics of how house addresses are determined.

## Explanation of street address and house numbers

When municipalities determine how to number addresses, they start by measuring the distance the property sits from an established zero point, or baseline (such as the city center). This central point gives the city or county a consistent location from which to measure and number all existing and future addresses . The individual numbers are then determined following methods such as:

• House numbers increase by a certain amount based on their distance from the baseline (such as increasing by 1,000 for every mile or 5,280 for every mile).
• Blocks are divided into zones and given a digit for the hundreds place (such as the 500 zone).
• The final two digits are determined by how many individual properties (homes or businesses) can be established within that grid.
• Even and odd numbers are on opposite sides of the street.

The rules used by the civil planning engineers varies depending on population, street configurations, and other factors. For instance, rural areas use different measurements for numbering than metropolitan areas, and some of the numbers might even correspond to the route they’re located on.

Of course, this is a simplified explanation of some considerations behind assigning house numbers. The actual system will make your head spin.

Car Basic 101: What is a hybrid, and how does it work?

Sources:   Mental Floss , Planning.org

The News Wheel is a digital auto magazine providing readers with a fresh perspective on the latest car news. We’re located in the heart of America (Dayton, Ohio) and our goal is to deliver an entertaining and informative perspective on what’s trending in the automotive world. See more articles from The News Wheel.

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## How big should my house number be?

One of the most common questions we get asked before our customers’ make a purchase is ‘how big should my house number be?’

The answer is very hard for us to advise without being able to stand outside the property, so here are 5 questions to help you make the right decision for your home.

1. How far back from the street is your property?

In order to determine the ideal house number size you will need to get a general idea of what distance your number will be viewed at. Our 150mm high stainless steel numbers are our best selling size, and generally speaking these are readable 10-15m away. We also stock larger house numbers at 250mm high and these would be readable at about 20-25m away. A useful question is - Do you want your house number to be a big statement or simply clearly legible from the road? We think our 250mm high numbers (helvetica pictured below) make a big impact by a front door!

2. What surface are you fixing to?

The colour and texture of the installation surface can influence how readable your number will be. For example we usually recommend black house numbers or grey house numbers for installation onto a white rendered wall, as stainless steel can get lost against the white. If your wall is particularly uneven and textured then a larger number would be a better option to ensure it is clearly legible against the wall. For front doors our most popular choice of height is 95mm high, for a clear nicely proportioned door number.

3. Is there a specific area on the wall or door you want to fill?

If you have a particular space, for example a pillar or a panel of the door then this needs to be taken into consideration. Ideally there should be an area around the numbers left free to help with the overall look: taking the numbers to the very edge of a space will make things look crowded. To help our customers we can provide a visual of your chosen style at the height you think is right. For example if you live at a number 230 and want the 150mm size, then we can draw this up to show you the overall effect and total combined width of the numbers.

3. What style of house number are you choosing?

The style of your house number can impact how easy it is to see, for example if you compare our Impact House Numbers with our Century House Numbers there is a huge difference in the surface area of the steel, which ultimately affects how easy it is to read. The Century House Numbers and Serif House Numbers are a lovely choice for a period property, but they are very slender and delicate so you may want to consider sizing up on these styles. These ‘impact’ house numbers below at 150mm high fill this pillar perfectly and have a big surface area to contrast against the stone.

4. Is your property on a well-lit street?

If your street is dimly lit you may want to consider an LED house number , which will help to guide visitors to your front door. Our LED numbers are completely IP rated for outdoor use and are adaptable for installation with dusk till dawn sensors or a timer. If LEDs are not for you but you are not on a well lit street then a larger stainless steel number would be preferable to any of our powder coated ranges – the stainless steel surface will catch the light at certain times of day and reflect the headlamps of cars arriving at your home. Pictured below is our best selling LED number plaque

How big is too big for a house number?

If you aren’t afraid to make a statement and have the space then your house number is yours to create! Whilst 95mm 150mm and 250mm are the most common choices, creating a custom house number can be the way to go when it comes to adding the finishing touch to a house front. We can produce up to 800mm length parts and help you to create something that can’t possibly be missed! Take a look at ‘ We Love Home’ blog to see how blogger Maxine used our service to make a beautiful No. 8 (pictured below).

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## Dwelling stock in England (UK) 2020, by county

Number of dwellings in england (uk) in 2020, by county (in 1,000s).

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United Kingdom (England)

* Years through March 31; all figures are provisional. Does not include Unitary Authorities. This statistic using original data from the Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities and includes copyright material licensed under © Crown, the Open Government License v3.0

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## House numbering in the UK: the mystery of Postage Act of 1765

Search around online for information about the origins of house numbering in the UK and the chances are you will find stories which say it started with the Postage Act of 1765.

This, for example, is what the BBC website has to say :

Most British houses started being numbered with the introduction of the Postage Act of 1765.

Yet more precise information, such as a quote from the act itself or a more detailed explanation, is conspicuously lacking.

The widespread appearance of the same claim, all without any detail behind it, made me suspicious. It has the classic signs of one wrong piece of information being provided the once and, in the absence of any other convenient online sources of information, that then spreads and spreads as everyone copies everyone else. Yet its widespread prevalence doesn’t mean it is true; it just means it is the easily available version of events so it is the one that people always cite.

So is it true? I’ve been doing some digging and so far the answer looks to be “probably not”. The full text of the 1765 Postage Act does not contain any direct reference to house numbering, either introducing or standardising it.

Perhaps the standardisation of the postal service it introduced, along with the plans to measure distances along road, encouraged house numbering, but the Act didn’t directly require numbering.

So if the 1765 claim is so dubious, where does the truth lie? Most likely at the start of the eighteenth century, for this is what The British Postal Museum & Archive says:

The first recorded instance of a street being numbered is Prescot Street in Goodmans Fields in 1708. By the end of the century, the numbering of houses had become well established, and seems to have been done on the consecutive rather than the odd and even principle which we have now become familiar. None of this was regulated and numbering systems varied even in the same street. For example about 1780, Craven Street in the Strand had three sets of numbers. There were irregularities everywhere, and the naming of streets and parts of streets was left to the idiosyncrasy or whim of the owner. Regulation did not take place until 1855 with the passing of the Metropolitan Management Act. For the first time the power to control and regulate the naming and numbering of streets and houses was provided for and given to the new Board of Works.

That version of events seems to have rather better evidential support, for it can be traced back to the 1708 publication, Hatton’s New View of London , which, using slightly different spelling, recorded that,

In Prescott Street, Goodman’s Fields, instead of signs the houses are distinguished by numbers, as the staircases in the Inns of Court and Chancery.

There are hints  that house numbering spread through the 18th century, all without that 1765 Postage Act* – and so leaving a mystery quite why anyone thought the 1765 Act was relevant in the first place.

Thanks to Ben Williams for some of the digging on this.

* Update: this idea of numbering spreading sporadically during the 18th century fits with this discussion thread , which highlights two acts from 1766, both setting out house numbering requirements. In Streets, Southwark Act (Act 6 Geo III c24) there was provision for the numbering of houses in the Borough of Southwark and in London Paving and Lights Act 1766 (Act 6 Geo III c26) there were similar provisions for the City of London. In other words, street numbering grew haphazardly through grassroots introduction in different areas at different times.

## One response to “House numbering in the UK: the mystery of Postage Act of 1765”

Thanks – the postal museum has a good description online of how the system evolved. But it’s unclear in places whether the text is referring to London only. I like the line about people having to describe the address as best they could before numbers. It’d be interesting to see an old envelope/ postcard that backs this up – the white cottage with the green door half way up the hill, etc. Ruth

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Lib Dem Newswire is a "must read" (Daily Telegraph).

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How Do They Determine Address Numbers?

In the United States, odd numbers are on one side and even numbers on the other. Typically, the address number assigned is proportional to the distance from some baseline, so that's why there is a big skip in numbers on a typical street.

In many cities, addresses often increase by 100 for each cross street, sometimes within each block. So a block where one side is numbered 5501, 5513, etc. is followed by a block beginning with 5601.

Until the widespread adoption of 911 Emergency Systems, an old rural address might have been something like Route 2, Box 12. But 911 forced the naming of street names and house numbers in rural areas, which typically number 1000 for each mile from the nearest town center.

Some areas of the country feature addresses based on a layout of the county. The powers-that-be determine a baseline in one corner of the county, and numbers increase from that point moving a certain direction. In other words, an address on a north-south road 15 blocks north from the baseline is written as "N1500," or an address 37 blocks west from the baseline on a east-west road is shown as "W3700."

Many municipalities across the country combine two baselines, so the address would read "N1500-W3700."

Have you ever seen a hyphen in an address? Some places use a hyphen to separate the hundreds digit from the tens digit. So a building number that might elsewhere be written 22233 is instead written 222-33. In these kind of numbering systems, the first number typically refers to the street where the numbering begins. So 55-40 63rd Avenue would be so numbered because the starting point was 55th Street.

The compound block number systems (i.e. 123 N 3400 W) indicate the number of blocks from both the north-south and the east-west dividing lines, where more conventional systems might use "123 34th Ave NW."

Visibility Of House Numbers

While we're looking at house numbers, have you ever considered the actual numbers on your house? Usually, a previous owner installed the number and subsequent owners never give it another thought.

But these numbers are more important than most of us realize.

For safety, house numbers should be clear enough so emergency responders (police, fire department, paramedics) can quickly locate the house. Even in this day and age of GPS and Google, numbers are often the only way that first-responders can identify their intended destinations.

But there are other reasons to have visible numbers... keeping party guests from getting frustrated trying to find the house, or keeping the pizza delivery guy on schedule (very important at my house!).

Many municipalities have ordinances or laws requiring the house number to be a certain size or color. In some cities, the address is painted on the curb as well, often in reflective paint.

But if there are no government regulations in your neck of the woods, here are some recommendations to make your address much easier to read from the road:

• The numbers should be large, say 5 or 6 inches tall, since smaller numbers may not be visible from the street. Replacement house numbers can be purchased from just about every hardware store in the country, as well as online.
• The colors should contrast with their background, and be reflective (reflective numbers are easier to see at night).
• Trees and shrubs (or anything else for that matter) shouldn't obscure their view from the street.
• If you live on a corner lot, make sure that the number faces the correct street. Say you live on 1455 Jones Avenue at the intersection of Jones Avenue and Smith Street... it doesn't help emergency workers if the 1455 faces Smith Street.
• If your house not visible from the road, the number should be placed at the driveway's entrance... and keep snow and debris from blocking visibility.

In addition to numbers on the houses, we have street numbers painted on the curbs in our subdivision.

Very interesting and informative post.  I am still trying to figure out why my GPS thinks my house is on the left side of the street when I live on the right side. Go figure!

Amazing how little we know about reading an adress or actually using a map. I hope the GPS system stays up froever. I wonder what we would do if the GPS system were to go down for a year or two.

I never knew that about what the numbers mena, Jason! I, too, know that it's very important to have visible numbers on your home. We like our pizza hot!

Congrats on the feature! Great observation. Really good points for us all to remember... no one knows more frustrations then those that have to travel to a different address every day.

First of all many congrats on your featured post...that is always such an accomplishment :) This is such an interesting post because when the Viana Hotel and Spa was built, the owner had to change the address. Originally it was set as 4000...in Feng Shui that is a huge no no...and I know he fought to change it...and it did.  But thank you for the inside scope, very interesting :)

K.C. -- Thanks!

George -- Interesting information. Thanks!

Jen -- Glad things make a bit more sense now.

Bryant -- Thanks very much, I appreciate that!

J. Philip -- You are right, visible numbers are very, very helpful to anyone looking in the dark... or the light, for that matter.

Kristin -- The street name on the marker is a good idea!

Michael -- Thanks!

Dustin -- Thanks!

Corrine -- Those markers are lifesavers!

Lorrie -- That's always a great way for emergency responders -- and even the pizza delivery person -- to find the house.

Ira -- I love my GPS, but it gives me similar fits so many times.

Chris -- GPS is such a wonderful tool. I get frustrated when it goes down occasionally.

Aaron -- Thanks!

David -- I appreciate it. We know how hard it can be to find some residences.

Laura -- That's an interesting story, thanks for sharing!

GPS is wonderful but the emergency people know they're not 100 percent accurate.  I'd rather have the number and street name on the marker, mail box, etc.

Ever see those fly by night guys that come around painting house numbers on the curb up there.  Don't help me much.  Don't have a curb, just a mail box.

Erby -- Yeah, we have those fly-by-nighters come by every so often. But it might be a pro crew soon, since my city hall is considering mandatory curbside marking.

An interesting post.  My search, however wa to find out if there's a "tradition" of putting odd numbers on one side vs. even numbers. Say... odd on the north and west- even on south and east.

I have the exact problem listed in the bottom...I live in an old duplex and the house address actually faces the cross st. Soooooooo annoying for deliveries and yes, with a toddler, there is the scary thought of emergency vehicles not being able to find our home. Is there any way to have the post office change our address?

Houses on the North side here are even and the South side odd. But the house across from me has an even number also. I was told by an EMT driver that the number is determined by the direction the front door faces. Their front door faces East. I don't really understand this rule.

if my house is on a corner lot and my drive way is on the side road and my address is for that side road and then is the main road my side yard but my house is facing the main road

How do you tell the flow of traffic streets with regard to house number? For example, if you are on 24th street and you don't know which direction 25th street is, should you assume that 25th will be in the direction where the house numbers are ascending? Is this a rule or every jurisdiction figures it out on its own? Thanks!

what i would really like to know is why are some house numbers 1 digit, some 2 some 3 some 4 and some 5. what is the significance if the number of digits?

Why on block their ever and one house has a odd numer on the same side

Interesting, thanks! I was wondering how it could be that there I frequently find house numbers like "15438". Especially because they are always in sparsely-populated areas... how can there be 15000 houses on one street there?!? This explains it. :)

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## How Are Streets Numbered In Uk?

A new street should generally be numbered with even numbers on the right side and odd numbers on the left side except for a cul-de-sac, consecutive numbering in a clockwise direction is preferred. Additional infill properties in streets which are currently numbered will always be allocated a property number.

## How are UK road numbers decided?

The first digit in the number of any road should be the number of the furthest-anticlockwise zone entered by that road . For example, the A38 road, a trunk road running from Bodmin to Mansfield starts in Zone 3, and is therefore numbered with an A3x number, even though it passes through Zones 4 and 5 to end in Zone 6.

## How are streets named UK?

City, borough and district councils allocate postal numbers to houses and buildings in their area. They also name new roads and streets. The council involves the land developer in the street naming process . They invite suggestions and possible alternative names from the developer.

## How are street numbers determined?

The numbers begin at the end of the road nearest the city, village, or post office, or where the road joins a more important highway . There would be a hundred units to each mile or about 53 feet to a unit.

## Why are houses numbered odd and even UK?

So why do we have odds on one side and evens on the other? It’s so the postman can walk all down one side to deliver to the odd-numbered houses, and then back up the other to deliver to the even-numbered .

## Why is the M5 called the M5?

Re: Why “logically” is the M5 called the M5? I think that the M5 number was chosen because the Birmingham-Exeter route was considered important enough to merit a one-digit number . It’s a fair point, and it makes sense, especially as there is a lot of holiday traffic to the south west.

## What is the longest street name in the UK?

A1: London — Edinburgh: 396 miles (637km) The longest road in the UK is the A1, also known as the Great North Road , which runs from Central London in the south to Central Edinburgh in the north.

## What is the most named street in the UK?

The top 15 most-common street names are:

• High Street.
• Main Street.
• Church Street.

## How are street names written?

Always use figures for an address number. Spell out and capitalize First through Ninth when used as street names ; use figures for 10th and above. 7 Fifth Ave. 100 21st St.

## Why do some streets have no number 13?

Some time during the 1960s, the city council outlawed No 13. The belief was that the public regarded the number with superstition and feared it would affect the value of properties . Fear and avoidance of 13 has an official name, triskaidekaphobia. It comes from the traditional idea that 13 is unlucky, a bad omen.

the local government office Street addresses are created by the local government office that has jurisdiction over the area where the streets are located. There is usually an office located in each unit of local government. However, there are instances of combined local government offices such as a joint county – city municipal building.

## How do street house numbers work?

The orientational numbers are arranged sequentially within the street or square . If the building is on a corner or has two sides, it can have two or more orientation numbers, one for each of the adjacent streets or squares. Solitary houses distant from named streets often have no orientation number.

## How are house numbers assigned UK?

A new street should generally be numbered with even numbers on the right side and odd numbers on the left side except for a cul-de-sac, consecutive numbering in a clockwise direction is preferred . Additional infill properties in streets which are currently numbered will always be allocated a property number.

## Do UK houses have a number 13?

Number 13 is met with suspicion worldwide, but for homes in the UK, these houses are particularly tarnished . It’s even seen builders remove the number for new developments, and replace it with a 12A, or miss it out completely. But is our mistrust of 13 about to be turned on its head?

## Why do houses in the UK all look the same?

After the great fire of London in 1666, all buildings in London had to be built from brick with a tiled roof to inhibit the spread of fire . That then set the trend for home building in the UK.

## What does the a in a road stand for UK?

What is an A-road? A-roads are major roads between regional towns and cities ; they can be called ‘trunk’ roads or ‘principal’ roads. There are over 28,000 miles of A-roads in the UK, and they comprise of both single and dual-carriageway roads in rural and urban areas.

## What does the a in a road stand for?

In the US and Canada the designation A stands for an alternate route , while highway 99 goes north to south 99A may go through towns while 99 routes around the same town.

## What does M stand for in roads?

motorways “M” routes are primary traffic routes, called motorways in some states . These are typically dual carriageway, freeway-standard highways, but may also be used for rural roads that are nearly at freeway-standard, or at least are dual carriageways.

## Why is the M25 called the M25?

The M25 is named after the A25 because at its oldest point (the section traversing Surrey) it follows the path of the older A25 . The M23 is named after the A23 but although there is an A24 no M24 has been built alongside it.

## Why is the A1 not a motorway?

When it came time to build the motorways then the A1 was already D2 and hence it would cost more to upgrade it for little benefit, so it didn’t happen . Then the likes of the M1 was built and the route priorities moved away from the A1 corridor.

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## House Number Calculator Numerology

House number numerology calculator.

How do I find my house number in numerology? Your house number in numerology is typically determined by adding the digits of your house number together until you get a single-digit number. For example, if your house number is 123, you would add 1 + 2 + 3 = 6. So, in numerology, your house number would be 6.

Which number is lucky for a house? Lucky numbers for a house can vary depending on cultural beliefs and personal preferences. In general, numbers like 1, 6, 8, and 9 are often considered lucky in many cultures.

How do you calculate Feng Shui house number? To calculate a Feng Shui house number, you typically sum the digits of the house number until you get a single digit. For example, if your house number is 1234, you would add 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10, and then further reduce it to 1 (since 10 is a two-digit number). So, in Feng Shui, your house number would be 1.

What is a 9 house in numerology? In numerology, a 9 house is associated with humanitarianism, compassion, and a focus on serving others. It can be a good house for those who want to make a positive impact on their community or the world.

How do I choose my house number? You can choose your house number if you have the option to do so when buying or building a house. Consider your personal preferences, beliefs, and any cultural or numerological significance attached to specific numbers.

Does every house have a house number? Yes, nearly every house has a house number assigned to it for identification purposes. House numbers are used for mail delivery, emergency services, and navigation.

What is the luckiest number in the universe? There is no universally agreed-upon luckiest number in the universe as beliefs about lucky numbers vary widely among cultures. Some common lucky numbers include 7, 8, and 9 in various cultures.

What is the house number as per date of birth? The house number is not typically determined based on a person’s date of birth. House numbers are usually assigned to physical addresses.

Which house is the house of luck? In astrology, the 9th house is often associated with luck, higher education, travel, and spiritual growth. However, the concept of luck can vary from person to person.

What house numbers do Chinese like? In Chinese culture, the number 8 is considered very lucky because it sounds like the word for wealth and prosperity. The number 6 is also considered lucky because it sounds like the word for smooth or easy progress.

How big should house numbers be? House numbers should be large enough to be easily seen from the street. A common size for house numbers is 4 to 6 inches in height, but local regulations may vary.

How can I calculate my lucky number? Your lucky number in numerology is often calculated based on your date of birth. Add the digits of your birthdate together and reduce them to a single digit. For example, if you were born on May 15, 1990, you would calculate 1 + 5 + 1 + 9 + 9 + 0 = 25, then further reduce it to 2 + 5 = 7, so 7 would be your lucky number.

Is No 9 good for a house? In numerology, a 9 house is associated with humanitarianism and compassion. It can be good for those who want to focus on helping others. However, whether it’s “good” for a house depends on personal preferences and beliefs.

Which house is good in 9th house? In astrology, the 9th house is associated with higher education, travel, spirituality, and luck. Planets placed in the 9th house can influence these areas of life.

What is the best color for house numbers? The best color for house numbers is one that contrasts with the background and is easily visible. Common choices include black, white, gold, or reflective materials for visibility at night.

Who assigns house numbers in the UK? In the UK, local authorities or the Royal Mail typically assign house numbers to properties.

How are houses numbered in the UK? Houses in the UK are often numbered sequentially along a street or road, with even numbers typically on one side and odd numbers on the other.

What is the highest house number in the UK? The highest house number in the UK would depend on the specific location and street. House numbers can vary widely, and there is no universal highest number.

Is house number important? House numbers are important for identification, mail delivery, and emergency services. They are also significant in some cultural and numerological beliefs.

Why is the house number important? House numbers are important for practical reasons, such as locating a specific address. They can also carry symbolic or cultural significance in some traditions.

Which birth month is the luckiest? The concept of the luckiest birth month is subjective and varies among individuals and cultures. There is no universally luckiest birth month.

Which number is powerful for wealth? In numerology, the number 8 is often associated with wealth and prosperity because it sounds like the word for wealth in many cultures.

What is the unluckiest number in the universe? The concept of the unluckiest number is subjective and varies among cultures. In some cultures, the number 13 is considered unlucky.

How do I know what house I was born in? In astrology, your birth chart can be used to determine the houses in which your planets are located. An astrologer can create your birth chart based on your birth date, time, and place.

What year is your house? The year your house was built can vary widely depending on its construction date. Houses can range from brand new to centuries old.

Do house numbers go in order? House numbers are typically assigned in sequential order along a street or road, with even numbers on one side and odd numbers on the other.

Which house is of wealth? In astrology, the 2nd house is often associated with wealth and financial matters.

Which house represents money? The 2nd house in astrology represents money, personal resources, and financial stability.

Which house is the death house in astrology? In astrology, the 8th house is often associated with death, transformation, and deep psychological processes.

What is the house number for wealth? There is no specific house number associated with wealth in numerology. Wealth is influenced by various factors, including personal actions and financial planning.

What are bad Feng Shui house numbers? Bad Feng Shui house numbers can vary depending on cultural beliefs, but some may consider numbers like 4 (because it sounds like the word for death in some Asian languages) or numbers associated with negative symbolism in a particular culture as bad.

What numbers should you avoid in Feng Shui? In Feng Shui, numbers like 4 and numbers associated with negative symbolism in a particular culture should generally be avoided. However, Feng Shui practices can vary, so it’s essential to consider your specific beliefs.

Where is the best place to hang house numbers? The best place to hang house numbers is near the main entrance of the house, where they are easily visible from the street or sidewalk.

Where do you put your house number in the UK? In the UK, house numbers are typically placed near the main entrance, often on or next to the front door.

Why do some houses have 2 numbers? Some houses may have two numbers if they are located on a corner or at an intersection, where they may have a front entrance facing one street and a side entrance facing another. This helps with identification.

Which is the luckiest number in numerology? The concept of the luckiest number in numerology is subjective and varies among individuals. However, numbers like 7, 8, and 9 are often considered lucky by many.

What are the 5 good luck numbers? Commonly considered good luck numbers in various cultures include 7, 8, 9, 6, and 3.

What are the top 5 lucky numbers? The top 5 lucky numbers can vary from person to person, but they often include 7, 8, 9, 6, and 3 in various cultural beliefs.

Is No 7 good for a house? In numerology, the number 7 is often associated with spiritual growth, introspection, and a quest for knowledge. Whether it’s “good” for a house depends on individual preferences and beliefs.

Is 8 a bad number for a house? The number 8 is generally considered lucky in many cultures because it sounds like the word for wealth and prosperity. It is not typically considered a bad number for a house.

Is 8 an unlucky number for a house? No, the number 8 is not generally considered unlucky for a house. In fact, it is often associated with good fortune and prosperity in many cultures.

Why is the number 9 so special? The number 9 is considered special in many cultures because it often symbolizes completeness, spiritual enlightenment, and humanitarianism. It is seen as a powerful and positive number.

Why is 9 the luckiest number? The number 9 is considered lucky in many cultures because it is associated with positive attributes such as wisdom, compassion, and spiritual growth.

Is 9 the luckiest number? The belief that 9 is the luckiest number varies among individuals and cultures. While it is considered lucky by many, others may have different beliefs.

Is the 9th house the house of luck? In astrology, the 9th house is often associated with luck, higher education, travel, and spiritual growth. However, the concept of luck can vary in interpretation.

What if my 9th house is empty? An empty 9th house in astrology may suggest that certain themes related to higher education, travel, or spirituality may not be as prominent in your life. It’s essential to consider the entire birth chart for a comprehensive analysis.

How do I activate my 9th house? To activate your 9th house in astrology, you can explore higher education, travel, spiritual pursuits, and philosophical studies. Engaging in these activities can bring the energies of the 9th house to the forefront of your life.

What is the luckiest house color? The luckiest house color can vary among individuals and cultures. Common lucky colors include red (for vitality and good fortune), green (for growth and harmony), and gold (for wealth and prosperity).

Which color is lucky for a house? Lucky house colors can vary, but red, green, and gold are often considered lucky in various cultures for different reasons.

What colors increase home value? Neutral colors like white, beige, and light gray are often recommended to increase home value because they appeal to a broad range of potential buyers.

Can you change your house number in the UK? In the UK, changing your house number would typically involve contacting your local authority or council to request the change, but it may not always be allowed or straightforward.

Can I give my house a name instead of a number? In some areas, it may be possible to give your house a name instead of a number, but this can vary by location and local regulations.

Why do house numbers go up by 4? House numbers may go up by 4 or any other increment based on the layout of the street and the decisions made by local authorities or planners. The numbering system aims to provide a logical and organized way to identify properties.

Is it a legal requirement to have a house number in the UK? In the UK, it is generally a legal requirement to have a house number or other means of identification for your property for postal and emergency services.

Do all UK houses have numbers? The majority of houses in the UK have numbers or some form of identification for postal and emergency services. However, there may be exceptions in very rural or remote areas.

How old are most houses in the UK? The age of houses in the UK can vary widely by region. Many houses date back to the Victorian era (1837-1901) and earlier, while others are more modern. The average age of houses may be several decades to over a century old in many areas.

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## Street Naming and House Numbering Systems

Pas report 13, historic pas report series.

Welcome to the American Planning Association's historical archive of PAS Reports from the 1950s and 1960s, offering glimpses into planning issues of yesteryear.

Use the search above to find current APA content on planning topics and trends of today.

"Though fog or night the scene encumbers, Why don't all buildings show their numbers On lintel, wall or door? Why can't a house say good and plenty, 'Hey look at me! I'm Nineteen-twenty, The joint you're looking for!'

"Why can't our thoroughfares, our highways, Our squares, our streets, our parks, our byways, Have signs where all can see? 'I'm Lincoln Place.' 'I'm Pershing Corner.' 'I'm Avenue Ignatius-Horner.' 'I'm Boulevard Legree.'

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

"So, dwellings, mansions, roadways, alleys, As well as rivers, mountains, valleys And hamlets near and far Throughout this self-effacing nation, We really want the information; Please tell us who you are! "

— Arthur Guiterman

Problems of street naming and house numbering may confront planning commissions in relation to new subdivisions or new planned neighborhood developments or these problems may arise simply as a result from the difficulties that have come out of the accumulated inefficiencies of an outmoded system. PLANNING ADVISORY SERVICE has recently received a number of inquiries on this subject.

No one would advocate designing a city or a subdivision along certain lines merely because it would be easy for the visitor or the delivery truck to locate persons and buildings. A well-planned community, with well-grouped major uses and service facilities, and with efficient means of intercommunication, is the primary concern of planners. However, once a street plan has been adopted by a community, with major and minor streets laid out, with feeder streets, and residential streets, and through highways and heavy traffic bearers, designed each according to its function, facilitating the use of these streets follows naturally. In part, the general attitude towards street naming and house numbering might be compared to that towards calendar reform; everybody is in favor of the reform, but such reform does not have top priority.

Correct as this attitude may be, it is unwarranted to dismiss street naming and house numbering systems as unimportant. Since planning in part is directed to providing rationality and order in community life, and in making communities more efficient and convenient, ease in locating places and facilities within a community should be encouraged.

This need has been recognized by citizen associations as well as official agencies. For example, the City Club of Chicago was instrumental in dramatizing the importance of clarifying the city's muddled street system. The first major attempt to systematize Chicago's street names was done in 1895; in 1913 and 1936 further clarification took place. The Nashville Times and Nashville Banner conducted a newspaper campaign in 1940 to reorganize the Nashville, Tennessee, naming and numbering procedure. Citizen support led to the formation of a special Joint Standing Committee on Ordinances on the Nomenclature of Streets in Boston in 1879 to recommend changes in that historic city's street naming policies — the recommendations made by the Commission at this early date contain some of the same general recommendations made today.

## General Arguments for Adopting a Street Naming and House Numbering System

Many arguments may be advanced to justify the need for special funds for a study of existing practices in a community, or to justify a street naming and house numbering reorganization ordinance:

• Unfavorable impression on visitors to the community if they have difficulty in finding places of interest and the businesses and persons they wish to see.
• Expense to delivery services in routing and rerouting packages.
• Difficulty in quick delivery of mail.
• Loss of letters and goods, wrongly addressed.
• Potential increase in traffic accidents by motorists intent on searching for correct address rather than on driving.
• Difficulty in training civic employees in knowledge of the city, and the resultant disappointment by residents and visitors in the caliber of these employees and the government in general.
• Subconscious feeling of estrangement toward community on the part of residents and visitors to the community.
• Difficulty in maintaining correct legal documents, such as those for licenses, vital statistics, deeds.

## Agencies and Organizations that may be Helpful in Devising a Street Naming and House Numbering System

• The local post office.
• Local police department.
• A retailers' association or large department stores.
• Chamber of Commerce.
• Local Railway Express Company.
• Real estate board, local home builder's association, subdividers of large tracts, abstract firms.
• The local newspaper.
• Regional office of the Federal Housing Administration.
• Local civic groups.
• Local utility companies.
• Local medical society and health department.

It is assumed that the street department, the city engineer, the department of public works, will be among the most interested municipal officials.

## Possible Objections to a New System

Objections may be raised to changing street names and house numbers. These generally come from those business or professional firms that feel a close identification of their activities with their street address. Objections are also raised, particularly in some of the older areas, if it is believed historic names will be discarded, and that the municipality will thus lose some of its individuality. Also, some persons object to change per se, believing that if a previous system worked at a previous time, it should not be altered. The section on court decisions in this report discusses whether individuals have rights in maintaining existing street names.

## General Recommendations:

1. No duplication of names or numbers. It is preferable not to have differentiation by a suffix "street" or "avenue." For example, "Washington Street" and "Washington Avenue" can too easily be confused, since often "avenue" and "street" are synonymous in the public mind. In some communities "place" is used to indicate a minor street closely associated with a major street — for example, "St. Anne Place" might be located a half block from "St. Anne Street." The suffix differentiation "place" is more defensible than the former example, since "place" generally connotes a subsidiary street, and because it more unusual that the ordinary suffixes, "street" and "avenue."

2. Continuation of a street name. A street should have one name only and should have the same name throughout its entire length. If the street is not a through street but is broken by intervening land uses and is laid out in substantially the same location at a more distant point, the same name should be used on all of the "links."

In some communities, if a street jogs sharply, the portion of the street running in the different direction is given another name.

3. There should be base lines dividing the community into east, west, north and south sections. It is not imperative that the suffixes "east," "west," "north," and "south" be used if a continuous numbering system is used, and if there are not many through streets. However, if the numbers radiate from the base intersecting streets, and there are many through streets, it will be easier to have such suffixes.

4. Numbers on parallel streets should be comparable. If a parallel street does not originate at the same point as another street, the numbers should not begin with a low number but should begin with the same number on a parallel street measured from the base line.

5. Numbering should be uniform, based on street frontage. This should be done within blocks and between blocks.

6. Numbering should be consecutive.

7. Even numbers should always be on one side of the street, and odd on the other. Common practice is to place even numbers on the north and west sides of streets and odd numbers on the south and east sides of streets.

8. It is good practice to distinguish between size and importance of street, and direction of street, by terminology. For example, "street" might be used for east-west streets, and "avenue" for north-south streets, or vice-versa. Diagonal streets or heavy traffic bearers might be called "boulevard." State or federal routes might be called "highway." "Drive" might be used for scenic pleasure thoroughfares. Curvilinear streets might use "place," "road," "way," and "lane," etc. (The Committee on Terminology established by the American Society of Planning Officials may make recommendations for the use of these terms.)

## Miscellaneous Considerations

Subdividers have found that there is greater "sales appeal" for houses on named streets, particularly if "romantic" names are used with suffices such as "place," "road," "lane," than on numbered streets. For example, the home purchaser prefers to live on "Rose Lane" than on "72nd Street."

Natural barriers such as a river or lake front, a ridge, etc., or man-created barriers such as railroad tracks, often are useful "basing points" for street naming systems and house numbering systems, if these barriers are outstanding and bear a suitable relationship to the growth of the town.

The heart of the central business district is a good "basing point" for such systems. There may be a shift in the location of the central business district at a later date, but such shift should not cause disruption of the street naming system.

Central business district retailers' associations may be very much interested in seeing that the street naming and house numbering system radiates from the central business district. For example, in Chicago, Western Avenue and Madison Street were selected as the base lines for dividing the city into quadrants.  The business interests in "The Loop" objected and were influential in establishing State Street and Madison Street as the dividing lines, even though that meant that there would be virtually no north-east quadrant of the city, due to the curve in Lake Michigan in that area.

In many communities, particularly in the Midwest, streets were laid out by law on the U. S. section lines. In some of these communities; the applicable regulations pertaining to the establishment of a gridiron street pattern have never been repealed. There also may be legal obstacles in establishing curvilinear street patterns or "super blocks" as well as perhaps some local street department reluctance to spoiling a gridiron street naming and numbering system.

Subdividers of large tracts have advised that street names be distinctive within a subdivision so that even though a visitor cannot immediately find an address on a curvilinear street, or in a cul-de-sac, he can immediately identify it as to its general location.

When a new street naming and numbering system is put into effect, it should be done completely at one time and not piecemeal over a period of time.

Presidents, states, famous women, famous army and military heroes, trees, famous men, cities, are favorite street name choices. Descriptive names such as "Lake," "Main," "Church" are also common. Historical names are often selected.

Streets may have interesting names which are in no way related to actual conditions, for example, a River Street may not be near any water, a Crooked Street may be straight, a Southport Avenue may not be close to a port. In Chicago, a Garfield Boulevard terminates at Washington Park, and a Washington Boulevard runs through a Garfield Park. It is not easy to select names, particularly for large cities. It was reported that London had approximately 5,350 street names, Paris 1,628, New York 5,003, Philadelphia 1,914, Baltimore 3,923, Cleveland 2,199, Detroit 2,262, and Chicago 1,360.

Communities requiring the posting of numbers often specify the type of lettering, size of numbers, etc. (See the Tucson, Arizona proposed ordinance in this report.) Some communities purchase these numbers, and others require the property owner to furnish them. Some communities paint or stencil the house number on the curb as well as requiring it on the house door itself.

## Examples of Street Naming and House Numbering Systems

Tulsa, Oklahoma, is based on a grid with the basic line Main Street running north and south and the Frisco tracks running east and west. All the streets east of Main are named in alphabetical order for cities of the United States situated east of the Mississippi — Boston, Cincinnati, Detroit, Elgin, etc.; while all those lying west of Maine are named for western cities — also in alphabetical order, such as Boulder, Cheyenne, Denver, etc. All the streets south of the Frisco tracks are named numerically in sequence — 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc., while those north of the tracks are named after prominent Indians or pioneer citizens and arranged alphabetically — Archer, Brady, Cameron, and others. In all parts of the city, the house numbers start with the even hundred at each corner.

M. C. Shibley, City Engineer for Tulsa, reported in the American City , March, 1938, that:

"One can see at a glance what a simple problem it is to reach any desired number from any other part of the city. Suppose, for example, one wishes to go to 615 Cincinnati. Everyone knows Main Street, which is one of the principal business streets of the city. Cincinnati is an eastern city, therefore he knows that Cincinnati Street is the second block east of main. All the streets that are named numerically lie south of the Frisco tracks. Therefore, he knows that house number 615 is in the southern part of the city between 6th and 7th streets. All the house numbers on streets running north of the tracks have the prefix of the letter "N," thus making a clear distinction between 615 and N. 615. . . . "

An example of a small city that recently renumbered and renamed its streets, is that of DeQuincy, Louisiana, population approximately, 5,000. The old street system gave each addition or sub-addition to the city a code number which formed part of the house number; the block number also formed part of the house number as did the relative location of the house on the block (or actual house number). Thus, a house located in a new subdivision, might have a house number such as 98562 although it was only one block distant from a house numbered 403. Also, under the old system, some streets had different names at different portions of their length, one street having three names. Ten streets had to be renamed, so that each would have the same name throughout its entire length.

After the revision, two streets were set up as basing points, Division Street running north and south, and Center Street running east and west. Now, all of the streets have a prefix designating north, east, south or west. At the point where Center and Division Streets intersect, and house numbers increase in size, the further the distance from these intersecting points. The streets are laid out in gridiron fashion.

Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin , recently revised its street naming system: on the east side-of the bay, which is the larger area, all north-south streets were assigned numerical names, beginning with "First Avenue," and the east-west streets were given geographical names (mostly states), beginning with "Alabama Street" and proceeding geographically to "Utah Street." On the west side of the bay, the north-south streets were given the names of cities, alphabetically arranged, and the east-west streets are named after trees.

Oshkosh, Wisconsin , prepared a new address system in 1949 which specified that all north-south streets should be called "Street," all east-west streets should be called "Avenue," all diagonal streets should be called "Drives," and all unrelated dead-end streets should be called "Courts." Rhinelander is another Wisconsin city that has adopted a new street naming and numbering system.

Henderson, Tennessee , adopted a new property numbering system in 1949 in which a grid was used and where there was a bend in the street, the numbering was continued as though the street was straight. An ordinance to provide for a uniform system of numbering in Jefferson City, Tennessee was published in Community Planning in Tennessee , a 1942 report of the Tennessee State Planning Commission.

The street-naming system of the metropolitan area of a city should be linked to the central city. A good example of a coordinated street naming pattern is in the vicinity of Washington, D. C.

The northeast Maryland suburbs falling within the area of the Maryland National Capital Park and Planning Commission adopted a street naming system in 1941, which is primarily a continuation of the street naming system of Washington, D. C. The base lines for the new system are North Capitol Street and East Capitol Street in Washington. These streets radiate north and east from the U. S. Capitol, and form the two inner boundaries of that city's northeast section. East from North Capitol are a series of numbered (north-south) streets which continue beyond the Washington, D. C. boundary into Maryland suburbs to numbers as high as 95th Avenue. North of East Capitol Street, the system consists of several zones of east-west streets arranged in alphabetical order. (1) A zone of streets named with letters of the alphabet, such as A Street, B Street, etc. (this is in Washington, D. C. only), (2) then alphabetized two-syllable names of famous Americans, such as Adams Street, and Bryant Street (this zone is located almost entirely in Washington, D. C., but some streets cross into Mount Rainier, Bladensburg, and Brentwood, Maryland.) (3) The next zone consists of alphabetized three-syllable names of famous Americans, such as Allison Street, Buchanan Street, etc., (these names are used in Northern Washington D. C., and in Hyattsville, Riverdale, and Edmonston, Maryland and vicinity.) (4) The next zone extending into Maryland contains the alphabetized names of colleges, Austin Road, Clemson Road, and so forth. (5) The next zone consists of alphabetized Indian names, such as Apache Street, Blackfoot Street, etc., and is in Maryland only.

Monroe County, New York , at the request of the smaller municipalities within its area, undertook the job of eliminating duplication of street and road names, and of establishing a pattern of house numbering. Over two hundred duplicate names were discovered and eliminated. The new pattern was dovetailed into that previously established for Rochester, where numbers were formerly established on the basis of 15 feet per number. This was extended through the towns surrounding the central city, until all old subdivisions with lot frontages of less than 50 feet had been included. In the area of new subdivisions, where 50 foot lots have been required, the numbers were based on 50 feet intervals. Arterial highways originating in Rochester were given the same name for their entire length to the county line, and were given numbers on a continuous basis, the lower numbers nearer to the center of the town. Where incorporated villages had adopted another numbering system, the county numbering system was established so that the incorporated villages could join the county system when they chose to do so.

## The Lyman or Salt Lake City System

The Lyman Uniform Street Numbering System was developed by Richard R. Lyman, a consulting civil engineer, and has been adopted by Salt Lake City and County, Utah, by St. George, Utah, and by Sacramento, California, among other cities, and was proposed by the Weber County-Ogden City Planning Commission. Some of the features of this plan have also been incorporated in Los Angeles, California and Kansas City, Missouri. This system utilizes a grid, with base line streets dividing the city into east, west, north and south portions. Streets are given numbers, instead of street names, with an increase in the size of the numbers, the greater the distance from the base lines.

Curved and crooked streets, and other streets deviating from the basic grid pattern may fit into this pattern of street numbering. For example, in the illustration used below, which appeared in the American City in the issue of September 1942, an irregular street will have as many "number" names as necessary. In the first example, the diagonal street from point A to point B, is considered as an east-west street and is called 624 North Street at one end, and 675 North Street at the other (since the street originates on the even numbered side on one block and runs through to the odd numbered side on the other end of the block, the numbers differ accordingly). The residents would choose as a street address whatever street name was closest to their home. If this street were to be continued in a diagonal direction, it would have a new numbered name at each intersection, corresponding to its geographic location. In the second example, a street running from points C to D to E would be in part an east-west street, and in part, a north-south street, and would be numbered accordingly.

## Street Naming and House Numbering in New Subdivisions

An example of street naming and house numbering in a modern subdivision with a curvilinear street pattern is that of Park Forest, Illinois. In Park Forest, the new community development south of Chicago, one of the designation problems involved making a decision as to which of two streets to use in giving the unit an address. The buildings — row houses — are grouped around parking bays, and the units actually face neither street. The sketch shows how this and some of the other numbering problems were handled.

Professor Eugene Van Cleef has described a system of house numbering on irregular streets, within a larger framework of a gridiron street pattern, in the February, 1950 issue of American City . A house derives its street address from its location in respect to the two nearest major arteries.

## Pertinent Court Decisions

In the case of Hagerty v. Chicago , 195 N.E. 652 (Illinois) the court held that an ordinance changing the name or a street under statutory authority is not invalid as unreasonable. Under the Laws of 1911, the common council of cities, and the president and board of trustees in villages are expressly authorized to name and change the name of any street, avenue, alley, or other public place. The property owner abutting the street was found to have no property right in the name of the street which would prevent the municipality from changing the name of the street.

According to Bacon v. Miller , 160 N.E. 381 (New York) names of streets and numbers of houses may be changed since there is no vested right in the name of a street or in a number originally assigned. The court also found that although renaming and renumbering streets is inherently a local matter, it cannot be done arbitrarily, but must be done in good faith.

In Ohio, the court held that in Miller v. Cincinnati , 10 Ohio Dec. 423, 21 Cin. Law Bul. 121, if no good cause exists for changing the name of a street, the municipality cannot change it accept on petition of the abutting owners.

In Brown v. Topeka 74 P. (2d) 142, it was held that a city had the implied authority to change the name of a street.

However, when streets are deeded to a city or village, the deed conveying the street may restrict the grantee's right to change its name according to Belden v. Niagara Falls , 136 Misc. 406, 241 N.Y.S. 5.

Naming streets is a legislative act and not a judicial act, according to Darling v. Jersey City , 78 A. 10 (New Jersey), and is not subject to review by or interference from the courts. Also, in Eldridge v. Fawcett , 223 P. 1040 (Washington) it was found that the right to change the name of a street is a legislative right which is not exhausted by previous exercise thereof.

In Norwood Heights Improvement Association Inc., v. Mayor and City Council of Baltimore et al ., 72 A. (2d) 1, (Maryland, 1950), the Association appealed a decision of the Board of Municipal and Zoning Appeals, objecting, among other things, to the house numbers to be given to several apartment buildings. The court dismissed the appeal, and, among other things, stated that the zoning ordinance had nothing to do with the numbering of new houses.

## Sample Ordinance

Model ordinances for establishing street naming and house numbering systems have been proposed by the League of South Dakota Municipalities, in its Bulletin of November, 1936, and by the League of Wisconsin Municipalities in The Municipality , February, 1941.

Tucson, Arizona, proposed a new system in 1949; the suggested ordinance is reproduced below to indicate types of provisions which may be included in such an ordinance.

"An Ordinance Establishing A Uniform System For Numbering Buildings And Streets, Naming Streets, Establishing Base Streets and Designations For Numbering And Naming Purposes, Providing The Methods For Instituting Said System, And For The Enforcement Thereof.

"The Mayor and Council of the City of Tucson do ordain as follows: "SECTION 1. There is hereby established a uniform system for numbering buildings fronting on all streets, avenues, and public ways in the City of Tucson, and all houses and other buildings shall be numbered in accordance with the provisions of this ordinance. "SECTION 2. Speedway shall constitute the base line for numbering buildings along all streets running northerly and southerly; and Pioneer Boulevard, as hereinafter named and established, shall constitute the base line for numbering buildings along all streets running easterly and westerly. "( 1) Each building north of Speedway, and facing a street running in a northerly direction shall carry a number and address indicating its location north of said base street. "(2) Each building south of Speedway, and facing a street running in a southerly direction shall carry a number and address indicating its location south of said base street. "(3) Each building east of Pioneer Boulevard, and facing a street running in an easterly direction shall carry a number and address indicating its location east of said base street. "(4) Each building west of Pioneer Boulevard, and facing a street running in a westerly direction shall carry a number and address indicating its location west of said base street. "(5) All buildings on diagonal streets shall be numbered the same as buildings on northerly and southerly streets if the diagonal runs more from the north to the south, and the same rule shall apply on easterly and westerly streets if the diagonal runs more from the east to the west. All buildings on diagonal streets having a deviation of exactly forty-five (45) degrees, shall be numbered the same as buildings on northerly and southerly streets. "SECTION 3. The numbering of buildings on each street shall begin at the base line. All numbers shall be assigned on the basis of one thousand (1000) numbers to each mile, or one thousand (1000) numbers between established section lines or the streets located thereon, and where practicable two numbers shall be assigned to each ten and fifty-six hundredths (10.56) feet of occupied frontage. "SECTION 4.(a) All buildings on the right-hand side of each street running from the base street shall bear even numbers. All buildings on the left-hand side of each street running from the base street shall bear odd numbers. "(b) Where any building has more than one entrance serving separate occupants, a separate number shall be assigned to each entrance serving a separate occupant providing said building occupies a lot, parcel, or tract having a frontage equal to 10.56' for each such entrance. If the building is not located on a lot, parcel, or tract which would permit the assignment of one number to each such entrance, numerals and letters shall be used, as set forth in Section 8 herein. "SECTION 5. All buildings facing streets not extending through to the base line shall be assigned the same relative numbers as if the said street had extended to the said base line. "SECTION 6. In addition to the numbers placed on each house or other building as heretofore provided, all streets, avenues, and other public ways within said city are hereby given numbers and directional symbols according to their distance and direction from the two base streets set forth in Section 2 herein. "(a) All streets approximately parallel to and north of Speedway are given the direction North. All streets approximately parallel to and south of Speedway are given the direction South. All streets approximately parallel to and east of Pioneer Boulevard are given the direction East. All streets approximately parallel to and west of Pioneer Boulevard are given the direction West. "(b) East street shall bear a number or numbers corresponding with the one-tenth (1/10) of a mile in which said street is located at any given point. If said street is not parallel with either base street, then its number shall vary in the case of each address on said street according to the distance said address is from both base streets. Each house or other building in addition to the number or numbers given it under Section 4 herein shall also bear the number and direction of the street on which it is located.

"SECTION 7(a). The Mayor and Council shall cause the necessary survey to be made and completed within six (6) months from the date of the adoption of this ordinance and thereafter there shall be assigned to each house and other residential or commercial building located on any street, avenue, or public way in said city, its respective number under the uniform system provided for in this ordinance according to said survey. When the said survey shall have been completed and each house or building has been assigned its respective number or numbers; the owner, occupant, or agent shall place or cause to be placed upon each house or building controlled by him the number or numbers assigned under the uniform system as provided in this ordinance.

"(b) Such number or numbers shall be placed on existing buildings on or before the effective date of this ordinance, and within twenty (20) days after the assigning of the proper number in the case of numbers assigned after the effective date of this ordinance. The cost of the number or numbers shall be paid for by the property owner and may be procured either from the street superintendent at the unit price for the same, such price to be the cost of such units to the city, or from any other source. Replacement of numbers shall be procured and paid for by the owner. The numbers used shall be not less than three (3) inches in height and shall be made of a durable and clearly visible material. If the proper number is not placed on an existing building on or before the effective date of this ordinance, it shall be the duty of the superintendent of streets to install the proper number or numbers on said premises as hereinafter set forth, and to make a charge of five dollars (\$5.00) for each number so installed; which said charge shall become a lien against the premises on which said building is located, and shall be added to the city real estate tax on said premises for the ensuing year.

"(c) The numbers shall be conspicuously placed immediately above, on, or at the side of the proper door of each building so that the number can be seen plainly from the street line. Whenever any building is situated more than fifty feet from the street line, near the walk, driveway, or common entrance to such building and upon a gate post, fence, tree, post, or other appropriate place so as to be easily discernible from the sidewalk.

"SECTION 8. Where only one number can be assigned to any house or building, the owner, occupant, or agent of such house or building, who shall desire distinctive numbers for the upper and lower portion of any house or building, or for any part of any such house or building fronting on any street; such owner, occupant, or agent shall use the suffix (A), (B), (C), etc. as may be required.

"SECTION 9. For the purpose of facilitating a correct numbering, a plat book of all streets, avenues, and public ways within the city showing the proper numbers of all houses or other buildings fronting upon all streets, avenues, or public ways shall be kept on file in the office of the city superintendent of streets. These plats shall be open to inspection of all persons during the office hours of the superintendent. Duplicate copies of such plats shall be furnished to the engineer and building inspector by the city superintendent of streets.

"SECTION 10. It shall be the duty of the city superintendent of streets to inform any party applying therefore of the number or numbers belonging to or embraced within the limits of any said lot or property as provided in this ordinance. In case of conflict as to the proper number to be assigned to any building, the said superintendent shall determine the number of such building.

"SECTION 11. Whenever any house, building, or structure shall be erected or located in the City of Tucson after the establishment of a uniform system of house and building numbering has been completed, in order to preserve the continuity and uniformity of numbers of the houses, buildings, and structures, it shall be the duty of the owner to procure the correct number or numbers as designated from the city superintendent of streets for the said property and to immediately fasten the said number or numbers so assigned upon said building as provided by this ordinance. No building permit shall be issued for any house, building, or structure until the owner has procured from the superintendent of streets the official number of the premises. Final approval of any structure erected, repaired, altered, or modified after the effective date of this ordinance shall be withheld by the city building inspector until permanent and proper numbers have been affixed to said structure.

"SECTION 12. There is hereby established a uniform system of street naming in the City of Tucson, and all streets, avenues, and other dedicated public ways shall be named in accordance with the provisions of this ordinance.

"(a) All streets and other public ways running in the same direction and having a deviation of not more than 125 feet, shall carry the same name unless special circumstances make such a plan impracticable or not feasible. "(b) All through east and west streets shall carry the designation 'street' and all through north and south streets shall carry the designation 'avenue,' except for thoroughfares on section lines. "(c) All through thoroughfares running north and south on section lines shall be designated as 'boulevards.' "(d) All through thoroughfares running east and west on section lines shall be designated as 'ways,' such as Speedway, Broadway, etc. "(e) That part of any street ending in a 'dead-end,' or cul-de-sac, shall carry the designation 'place.' "(f) The name 'lane' shall be used in any residential or business development for any north and south alley street which bisects or crosses a nominal block or series of blocks, and the name 'row' for any such east and west alley street. "(g) Any street or portion thereof, running in a straight line for more than 500 feet, which moves at an angle of more than 20 degrees from a true north-south or east-west pattern, shall be designated, wherever practicable, as 'stravenue.' "(h) Any street which curves in an irregular pattern to an extent that its east-west or north-south direction is changed, shall be designated as 'paseo.' "(i) A short street that does not continue through, running east and west, shall be designated as 'calle.' Such a short street running north and south shall be designated as 'via.' "(j) No street established or named after the adoption of this ordinance shall bear a name in a language in conflict with its destination. "(k) The Mayor and Council may adopt further designations or any additional rules and regulations which may be required from time to time upon recommendations of the Planning and Zoning Commission by amending this section.

"SECTION 13. For the purpose of clarifying and systematizing the present street naming pattern in the City of Tucson and to implement the application of the matters set forth in Section 12 herein, there is hereby adopted the following plan.

"(a) The Planning and Zoning Commission of said city is hereby authorized to prepare and present to the Mayor and Council a complete plan for the naming of all streets, avenues, and public ways within said city. "(b) Said Planning and Zoning Commission shall follow the general plan set forth in Section 12 herein and such other rules as are herein set forth. "(c) If said Commission shall find an existing street now carrying more than one name, it shall recommend that said street shall bear the name under which it currently travels the longest distance both inside and outside of the city limits of said city unless circumstances indicate that another and different name would be desirable. Said Commission if it sees fit, may hold public hearings at which interested property owners may express their views concerning the changing of the name or names of any street. "(d) For the purpose of establishing a north and south base street, for numbering and naming purposes, the present existing north and south First Avenue and the extensions thereof is hereby named and designated as Pioneer Boulevard and is hereby established as the north and south base street for the purpose of this ordinance. "(e) The north and south bound streets west of said Pioneer Boulevard, which are named Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth. Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Sixteenth Avenues, are hereby renamed in a manner to be determined by the Mayor and Council upon recommendation of said Commission, so that the present conflict between numbered streets and numbered avenues is eliminated.

"SECTION 14. Every subdivision plat submitted to the Mayor and Council for their approval after the effective date of this ordinance shall bear upon its face the report of the Planning and Zoning Commission of the proper names of any and all streets, avenues, and public ways hereafter dedicated to public use within the jurisdiction of the Mayor and Council shall first be checked by the Planning and Zoning Commission as to their names under the provisions of this ordinance.

"SECTION 15. This ordinance and all house and building numbers assigned under the provisions thereof, and all street numbers and names established by said ordinance shall become effective one year from the date the Mayor and Council of said city shall by resolution accept and ratify the recommendations made by the Planning and Zoning Commission for the names of all streets, avenues, and public ways within said City, and shall determine that the superintendent of streets has completed the survey required by Section 7 of this ordinance.

"SECTION 16. The Mayor and Council by resolution may change, rename, or name an existing or newly established street within the limits of said city at any time after the adoption of this ordinance upon recommendation of the Planning and Zoning Commission, and after consultation with the Board of Supervisors, the County Planning Agency, and any other municipality directly affected thereby."

Copyright, American Society of Planning Officials, 1950.

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Rishi Sunak narrowly avoided a major rebellion by rightwing Conservative MPs after they abstained on his controversial Rwanda bill but the prime minister faces further peril in the new year.

In a blow to Sunak’s authority, more than two-dozen Tory rightwingers abstained in the vote on deporting asylum seekers to Rwanda , including the former home secretary Suella Braverman.

MPs warned that the prime minister must strengthen the legislation or face it being voted down when it returns to the Commons in early January.

Sunak now faces weeks of chaos as he struggles to hold together his mutinous party, with the rightwing openly attacking his flagship bill, while centrist One Nation MPs have warned they would be unable to support a toughened-up version.

Furious loyalist ministers warned that the rebels could push the government to the brink of collapse, with Sunak’s leadership already fragile and the Labour leader, Keir Starmer, demanding an immediate general election if the Rwanda bill falls.

However, Downing Street will take some comfort from the fact that not a single Conservative MP voted against the bill – while the number of abstentions was significantly lower than the 100 claimed by the so-called “five families” on the party’s right.

One Tory rebel source said: “This bill has been allowed to live another day. But without amendments it will be killed next month. It’s now up to the government to decide what it wants to do.”

It would require 29 Tory MPs to vote against the bill to defeat it entirely.

Immediately after the vote – which passed 313 votes to 269, with a majority of 44 – Sunak tweeted: “The British people should decide who gets to come to this country – not criminal gangs or foreign courts. That’s what this bill delivers. We will now work to make it law so that we can get flights going to Rwanda and stop the boats.”

After the vote, the shadow home secretary, Yvette Cooper, said: “The Conservatives’ civil war is continuing, and the country is paying the price for this chaos. Today’s debate shows how weak Rishi Sunak is with this Tory psychodrama now dragging on into the New Year.”

In a dramatic day at Westminster, Sunak spent hours trying to convince Tory MPs not to block the bill, sparing him a humiliating defeat. He held a series of meetings with different factions, starting with a pre-dawn breakfast at No 10.

But as hardliners on the Tory right pushed for measures to block interference from foreign courts, the home secretary, James Cleverly, who is said to have previously described the plan as “batshit”, suggested the legislation was already close to the limits of what would be possible.

In the Commons, Cleverly said: “The actions that we are taking, whilst novel, whilst very much pushing at the edge of the envelope, are within the framework of international law.”

Ahead of the vote, the new immigration minister, Michael Tomlinson, said that stopping all legal appeals against deportation by people who arrive in the UK through irregular means would not be “the British thing to do”, as he confirmed the government would not pull the vote.

Tory rightwing rebels warned Sunak that “major surgery” was still required to fix the asylum legislation, suggesting that Sunak has agreed to “tighten” the bill and that they could vote against it if the government refused to act on their concerns.

In a last-minute press conference before the vote, Mark Francois, chair of the European Research Group of MPs, said: “We very much hope that at committee those amendments may yet be accepted. If they are not and the bill remains amended in that way, again, collectively we agreed to reserve the right to vote against it at third reading.”

Robert Jenrick, who quit as immigration minister over the plans, used his Commons speech to push for stricter curbs on an individual’s ability to legally challenge their removal and for the government to overrule European court of human rights injunctions. He told MPs: “This bill could be so much better. Let’s make it better.”

Miriam Cates, from the New Conservatives group of MPs, said: “We agree that the bill is defective as it is. We don’t believe it will stop the boats. There are too many opportunities for legal challenge. We do support the principle of the bill, which is to stop the boats.”

The One Nation group, numbering about 100 MPs, backed the bill but has warned it will resist any amendments from the right that would risk the UK breaching the rule of law and its international obligations.

The parliamentary battle came after it emerged that a man seeking asylum is believed to have killed himself while being housed on the Bibby Stockholm barge , which was leased by Braverman to house recent arrivals to the UK.

Sunak has put the Rwanda bill at the heart of his policy to stop people crossing the Channel in small boats, which was one of five key priorities he set out at the start of the year.

The legislation is designed to overcome concerns raised by the supreme court, which ruled last month that the policy in its previous form violated domestic and international law.

The bill would empower ministers to ignore temporary injunctions raised by the European court of human rights that can stop flights taking off at the last minute.

But it does not set aside the European convention on human rights entirely, and would allow people to launch legal appeals to argue that they should be spared deportation because of particular circumstances.

• Immigration and asylum
• Conservatives
• Rishi Sunak

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