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How to write the Research Background and Motivation for your Thesis or Dissertation

  • 24th November 2009 24/11/09

You know what you want to write about. You’ve got the chapters planned out. But now you have to justify your choice of research project by writing a “Research Background and Motivation” section. This usually comes in the introduction, although pieces of it may end up in your abstract. Actually – it’s not that difficult; this is because it should be personal, and personal writing is always easier to write than research.

Basically, what in your life has brought you to the point where you decided upon this specific research topic? What inspired you to study/get involved in this field? What major works motivated or interested you? What personal challenges or experiences have made this research emotionally charged and relevant. The more you can express your passion and dedication to your research, the stronger it will be.

Hopefully, you’re genuinely interested in what you’re doing and find the topic stimulating and useful. Just tell your readers why.

Of course it’s not all about you; it’s about your responses to related works – what did you read that you didn’t agree with? What problems do you see in the current state of research in the field or on the topic? What piques your interest that no one else has explored before?

The Research Background and Motivation section of your thesis or dissertation is basically a combination of A) the evolution of theory / thought / responses to a topic and B) your personal reaction / feelings / thoughts on the subject.

Tips for writing the Research Background and Motivation Section

1) This is basically your only chance to let your own personality and passion shine out. Establishing your personality, your confidence, and your enthusiasm for researching the topic will go a long way in establishing credibility and interest for what you have to say.

2) Let it be known that you know yourself. Casually reference or cite information. Not the boring stuff (which you may do later in the literature review) but the salient or surprising discoveries which revolutionized your thinking or understanding of the topic.

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How to Write the Rationale for a Research Paper

  • Research Process
  • Peer Review

A research rationale answers the big SO WHAT? that every adviser, peer reviewer, and editor has in mind when they critique your work. A compelling research rationale increases the chances of your paper being published or your grant proposal being funded. In this article, we look at the purpose of a research rationale, its components and key characteristics, and how to create an effective research rationale.

Updated on September 19, 2022

a researcher writing the rationale for a research paper

The rationale for your research is the reason why you decided to conduct the study in the first place. The motivation for asking the question. The knowledge gap. This is often the most significant part of your publication. It justifies the study's purpose, novelty, and significance for science or society. It's a critical part of standard research articles as well as funding proposals.

Essentially, the research rationale answers the big SO WHAT? that every (good) adviser, peer reviewer, and editor has in mind when they critique your work.

A compelling research rationale increases the chances of your paper being published or your grant proposal being funded. In this article, we look at:

  • the purpose of a research rationale
  • its components and key characteristics
  • how to create an effective research rationale

What is a research rationale?

Think of a research rationale as a set of reasons that explain why a study is necessary and important based on its background. It's also known as the justification of the study, rationale, or thesis statement.

Essentially, you want to convince your reader that you're not reciting what other people have already said and that your opinion hasn't appeared out of thin air. You've done the background reading and identified a knowledge gap that this rationale now explains.

A research rationale is usually written toward the end of the introduction. You'll see this section clearly in high-impact-factor international journals like Nature and Science. At the end of the introduction there's always a phrase that begins with something like, "here we show..." or "in this paper we show..." This text is part of a logical sequence of information, typically (but not necessarily) provided in this order:

the order of the introduction to a research paper

Here's an example from a study by Cataldo et al. (2021) on the impact of social media on teenagers' lives.

an example of an introduction to a research paper

Note how the research background, gap, rationale, and objectives logically blend into each other.

The authors chose to put the research aims before the rationale. This is not a problem though. They still achieve a logical sequence. This helps the reader follow their thinking and convinces them about their research's foundation.

Elements of a research rationale

We saw that the research rationale follows logically from the research background and literature review/observation and leads into your study's aims and objectives.

This might sound somewhat abstract. A helpful way to formulate a research rationale is to answer the question, “Why is this study necessary and important?”

Generally, that something has never been done before should not be your only motivation. Use it only If you can give the reader valid evidence why we should learn more about this specific phenomenon.

A well-written introduction covers three key elements:

  • What's the background to the research?
  • What has been done before (information relevant to this particular study, but NOT a literature review)?
  • Research rationale

Now, let's see how you might answer the question.

1. This study complements scientific knowledge and understanding

Discuss the shortcomings of previous studies and explain how'll correct them. Your short review can identify:

  • Methodological limitations . The methodology (research design, research approach or sampling) employed in previous works is somewhat flawed.

Example : Here , the authors claim that previous studies have failed to explore the role of apathy “as a predictor of functional decline in healthy older adults” (Burhan et al., 2021). At the same time, we know a lot about other age-related neuropsychiatric disorders, like depression.

Their study is necessary, then, “to increase our understanding of the cognitive, clinical, and neural correlates of apathy and deconstruct its underlying mechanisms.” (Burhan et al., 2021).

  • Contextual limitations . External factors have changed and this has minimized or removed the relevance of previous research.

Example : You want to do an empirical study to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of tourists visiting Sicily. Previous studies might have measured tourism determinants in Sicily, but they preceded COVID-19.

  • Conceptual limitations . Previous studies are too bound to a specific ideology or a theoretical framework.

Example : The work of English novelist E. M. Forster has been extensively researched for its social, political, and aesthetic dimensions. After the 1990s, younger scholars wanted to read his novels as an example of gay fiction. They justified the need to do so based on previous studies' reliance on homophobic ideology.

This kind of rationale is most common in basic/theoretical research.

2. This study can help solve a specific problem

Here, you base your rationale on a process that has a problem or is not satisfactory.

For example, patients complain about low-quality hospital care on weekends (staff shortages, inadequate attention, etc.). No one has looked into this (there is a lack of data). So, you explore if the reported problems are true and what can be done to address them. This is a knowledge gap.

Or you set out to explore a specific practice. You might want to study the pros and cons of several entry strategies into the Japanese food market.

It's vital to explain the problem in detail and stress the practical benefits of its solution. In the first example, the practical implications are recommendations to improve healthcare provision.

In the second example, the impact of your research is to inform the decision-making of businesses wanting to enter the Japanese food market.

This kind of rationale is more common in applied/practical research.

3. You're the best person to conduct this study

It's a bonus if you can show that you're uniquely positioned to deliver this study, especially if you're writing a funding proposal .

For an anthropologist wanting to explore gender norms in Ethiopia, this could be that they speak Amharic (Ethiopia's official language) and have already lived in the country for a few years (ethnographic experience).

Or if you want to conduct an interdisciplinary research project, consider partnering up with collaborators whose expertise complements your own. Scientists from different fields might bring different skills and a fresh perspective or have access to the latest tech and equipment. Teaming up with reputable collaborators justifies the need for a study by increasing its credibility and likely impact.

When is the research rationale written?

You can write your research rationale before, or after, conducting the study.

In the first case, when you might have a new research idea, and you're applying for funding to implement it.

Or you're preparing a call for papers for a journal special issue or a conference. Here , for instance, the authors seek to collect studies on the impact of apathy on age-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

In the second case, you have completed the study and are writing a research paper for publication. Looking back, you explain why you did the study in question and how it worked out.

Although the research rationale is part of the introduction, it's best to write it at the end. Stand back from your study and look at it in the big picture. At this point, it's easier to convince your reader why your study was both necessary and important.

How long should a research rationale be?

The length of the research rationale is not fixed. Ideally, this will be determined by the guidelines (of your journal, sponsor etc.).

The prestigious journal Nature , for instance, calls for articles to be no more than 6 or 8 pages, depending on the content. The introduction should be around 200 words, and, as mentioned, two to three sentences serve as a brief account of the background and rationale of the study, and come at the end of the introduction.

If you're not provided guidelines, consider these factors:

  • Research document : In a thesis or book-length study, the research rationale will be longer than in a journal article. For example, the background and rationale of this book exploring the collective memory of World War I cover more than ten pages.
  • Research question : Research into a new sub-field may call for a longer or more detailed justification than a study that plugs a gap in literature.

Which verb tenses to use in the research rationale?

It's best to use the present tense. Though in a research proposal, the research rationale is likely written in the future tense, as you're describing the intended or expected outcomes of the research project (the gaps it will fill, the problems it will solve).

Example of a research rationale

Research question : What are the teachers' perceptions of how a sense of European identity is developed and what underlies such perceptions?

an example of a research rationale

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology , 3(2), 77-101.

Burhan, A.M., Yang, J., & Inagawa, T. (2021). Impact of apathy on aging and age-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Research Topic. Frontiers in Psychiatry

Cataldo, I., Lepri, B., Neoh, M. J. Y., & Esposito, G. (2021). Social media usage and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence: A review. Frontiers in Psychiatry , 11.

CiCe Jean Monnet Network (2017). Guidelines for citizenship education in school: Identities and European citizenship children's identity and citizenship in Europe.

Cohen, l, Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2018). Research methods in education . Eighth edition. London: Routledge.

de Prat, R. C. (2013). Euroscepticism, Europhobia and Eurocriticism: The radical parties of the right and left “vis-à-vis” the European Union P.I.E-Peter Lang S.A., Éditions Scientifiques Internationales.

European Commission. (2017). Eurydice Brief: Citizenship education at school in Europe.

Polyakova, A., & Fligstein, N. (2016). Is European integration causing Europe to become more nationalist? Evidence from the 2007–9 financial crisis. Journal of European Public Policy , 23(1), 60-83.

Winter, J. (2014). Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European Cultural History . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Tips for Writing Your Motivational Statement and Essays

While it’s one of our favorite parts of the application reading experience, we know that writing essay components can be anxiety-inducing for applicants. As you start or continue your application , we hope you find this guidance on the motivational statement and essays helpful.

Motivational Statement

All students applying to the Master of Public Policy (MPP) , MA in Public Policy (MA) , MS in Computational Analysis and Public Policy (MSCAPP) , and MA in Public Policy with Certificate in Research Methods (MACRM) programs are required to submit a 300-word motivational statement answering the questions: Why policy? Why Harris? (Or a version of these questions more specific to your program).

Some suggestions as you are thinking about your answers to these questions:

Answer the prompt. Don’t worry about using precious space to introduce yourself—jump right into answering the question. 

Write first, edit later. Get your ideas onto the page—whether that means bullet points, idea webs, or a journal entry. Don’t worry about crafting the perfect opener, meeting the word count, or checking grammar when you are first getting started.  

Reflect. Think about the professional, personal, or academic experience that has inspired you. 

Be specific. When answering Why Harris? , be specific to the University of Chicago and Harris. Analyze why certain programs, centers, classes, or professors made you want to apply here. 

Optional Essay Questions

Although the Motivation Statement is required, the essay questions are optional. For all optional essay questions, we aren’t just interested in the “right answer,” but how you are thinking about and approaching these complex questions.

Students applying to the Master of Public Policy (MPP) program may pick any of the three questions below. Completing question three will allow you to be considered for Pearson fellowships open only to MPP students.

Students applying to the MA in Public Policy (MA) , MS in Computational Analysis and Public Policy (MSCAPP) , and MA in Public Policy with Certificate in Research Methods (MACRM) programs may choose to complete optional essays 1 and

Option 1: Challenge—Describe briefly the biggest challenge you have ever faced. How did you tackle it and what did you learn? (max 300 words)

Tip: In essay one, you may write about a personal, professional, or academic challenge when answering this question. Perhaps more than the challenge itself, we are interested in how you tackled the challenge, and what you learned in the process.

Option 2: Community—Where do you see yourself getting involved in the community during your time at Harris—either at the University of Chicago or in the city of Chicago? (max 300 words)

Tip: If you are answering essay two, please make sure to speak specifically to Harris or UChicago.

Option 3: Pearson—If you would like to be considered for  The Pearson Fellowship , please answer the following: In reflecting on the complexities of past and present protracted global conflicts, please analyze what singular global conflict most puzzles you personally, and discuss why.

Tip: Please note that “global conflict” can refer to a range of conflicts (i.e. inter/intra state; those involving non-state actors, etc.) and a range of issues associated (i.e. refugee crises, religious conflict, gang violence, drug wars, domestic violence, etc.). Remember to consider: Is the conflict actually puzzling? For example, does it involve actors acting against their own best interest, or operating irrationally?​ And finally, for the purposes of this essay, you will not need to cite sources.

We hope you find these tips helpful as you move your application forward.

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8 Most Effective Ways to Increase Motivation for Thesis Writing 

thesis writing motivation

Writing a master’s or doctoral thesis is a tough job, and many students struggle with writer’s block and putting off work. The journey requires not just skill and knowledge but a sustained motivation for thesis writing. Here are eight essential strategies to help you find and maintain your motivation to write your thesis throughout the thesis writing process.

Know why you lack motivation

It’s important to understand whether you’re just avoiding writing (procrastination) or if you genuinely don’t feel interested in it (lack of motivation). Procrastination is when you delay writing even though you want to finish it, while a lack of motivation for thesis writing is when you have no interest in writing at all. Knowing the difference helps you find the right solution. Remember, not feeling motivated doesn’t mean you can’t write; it just might be less enjoyable.

Recognize external vs. internal motivation

In the early stages of your academic journey, things like job prospects or recognition may motivate you to write your thesis. These are external motivators. Over time, they might become less effective. That’s why it’s important to develop internal motivators, like a real passion for your topic, curiosity, or wanting to make a difference in your field. Shifting to these internal motivators can keep you energized about your thesis writing for a longer period.

Develop a writing plan

As you regularly spend time on your thesis, you’ll start to overcome any initial resistance. Planning and thinking about your work will make the next steps easier. You might find yourself working more than 20 minutes some days. As you progress, plan for longer thesis writing periods and set goals for completing each chapter.

Don’t overwhelm yourself

Getting stuck is normal in thesis or dissertation writing. Don’t view these challenges as impossible obstacles. If you’re frustrated or unsure, take a break for a few days. Then, consult your advisor or a mentor to discuss your challenges and find ways to move forward effectively.

Work on your thesis daily

Try to spend 15-20 minutes daily on tasks related to your thesis or dissertation. This includes reading, researching, outlining, and other preparatory activities. You can fit these tasks into short breaks throughout your day, like waiting for appointments, during commutes, or even while cooking.

Understand that thesis writing motivation changes

Realize that thesis writing motivation isn’t always the same; it changes over time. Your drive to write will vary with different stages of your research and life changes. Knowing that motivation can go up and down helps you adapt. When you feel less motivated, focus on small, doable parts of your work instead of big, intimidating goals.

Recharge your motivation regularly

Just like you need to rest and eat well to keep your body energized, your motivation for thesis writing needs to be refreshed too. Do things that boost your mental and creative energy. This could be talking with colleagues, attending workshops, or engaging in hobbies that relax you. Stay aware of your motivation levels and take action to rejuvenate them. This way, you can avoid burnout and keep a consistent pace in your thesis work.

Keep encouraging yourself

Repeating encouraging phrases like “I will finish my thesis by year’s end” or “I’ll complete a lot of work this week” can really help. Saying these affirmations regularly can focus your energy and keep you on track with your thesis writing motivation .

Remember, the amount you write can vary each day. Some days you might write a lot, and other days less. The key is to keep writing, even if it’s just rough ideas or jumbled thoughts. Don’t let the need for perfection stop you. Listening to podcasts where researchers talk about their writing experiences can also be inspiring and motivate you in your writing journey.

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Teaching and Researching Motivation

Yongkang yuan.

1 School of Languages and Culture, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, China

Hongjie Zhen

2 Department of Maritime, Hebei Jiaotong Vocational & Technical College, Shijiazhuang, China

The third edition of Teaching and Researching Motivation offers newly-updated and extended coverage of motivation research and pedagogical practice. As in the 2001 and 2011 editions, the text provides comprehensive insights into motivation research and teaching. However, the current edition, as in the authors' words, is “not so much a revised version as a newly written book that has the same authors, the same title and the same structure as the previous one” (Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2021 , p. x). It reflects the dramatic changes in the field of motivation research and examines how theoretical insights can be used in everyday teaching practice.

The monograph comprises four parts. Part I, “What is Motivation?”, consists of four chapters. The first chapter pertains to the complex meaning of the term “motivation” and summarizes the key challenges of theorizing motivation. Appealing to us in this chapter is that the authors put a stronger emphasis on understanding motivation in relation to learning LOTEs (languages other than English) and in relation to individual multilingualism. It is altogether fitting and proper for them to hold this belief since the world is becoming more diversified in terms of multilingualism. Chapter 2 offers a historical overview of the most influential cognitive motivation theories. In the new edition, social cultural factors impacting students' motivation are elaborated in more detail. Chapter 3 presents a historical overview of theories of L2 motivation. Drawing on insights from L2 research and psychology, Dörnyei and Ushioda articulate nine interrelated conditions for the motivating capacity of future L2 self-image. With a focus on the L2 Motivation Self System theory, Chapter 4 also critically examines other new theoretical approaches emerged in the field of L2 motivation over the past decade. Finally, it highlights two new perspectives: a focus on L2 learner engagement and “small lens” approaches.

Part II, “Motivation and Language Teaching,” includes three chapters on issues related to the relation between motivation and language teaching. Chapter 5 explores the extent to which theoretical and research insights can lead to practical recommendations for motivating the students in and outside of the language classroom. Based on this principle, it presents instructive approaches to motivating language learners. It also eloquently holds that motivational self-regulation and learner autonomy are two potent energizers which will have a lasing impact beyond the classroom. Chapter 6, “Motivation in Context,” deals with the “dark side” of motivation, “demotivation.” It argues that focused interventions can have significant positive outcomes and help counteract demotivation and facilitate remotivation within second language acquisition (SLA). The last chapter in this part is of special interest as it explores the relationship between language teacher and learner motivation, highlighting possible self theory (exploring conceptual change in language teachers). As a Chinese idiom goes, teaching benefits teachers and students alike. The same is true of language teacher motivation. It argues that teachers' passion and enthusiasm facilitate their teaching and enhance students' learning; and vice versa.

Important and of significance is how to do research so that it can facilitate teaching. Part III, “Researching Motivation,” includes two chapters on issues related to primary, data-based motivation research. Chapter 8 covers the unique characteristics, challenges and research strategies that are specific to the empirical study of language learning motivation. An outstanding contribution of this chapter is that four insightful principles of designing L2 motivation studies are proposed. Followed up on an overview of the most useful methods in this field in the past, Chapter 9 examines two new research initiatives: adopting a complex dynamic system approach and researching unconscious motivation, which will hold particular promise for the future.

Part IV, “Resources and Further Information” is informative and inspiring. In Chapter 10, the authors judiciously remark that particular aspects and context of L2 learning as well as multilingual communication should be focused in the future after further elaborating the interdisciplinary nature and challenge of L2 motivation research. The last chapter contains lists of key sources and resources on motivation such as relevant journals and latest valuable collections, database, discussion groups, and networks. What is of particular value is key scholars of L2 language motivation research, as well as useful tools and measures for researching motivation.

This monograph is a thought-provoking book. Firstly, this new edition reflects the latest research advancement, providing the language teachers and researchers with insights into cultivating motivation. In terms of theoretical paradigm, the L2 Motivation Self System (L2MSS) introduces a holistic approach exploring the combined and interactive operation of a number of different factors in relation to L2 motivation rather than the traditional cause-effect relation between isolated variables. Two recent motivational paradigms originate in L2MSS: directed motivational currents and long-term motivation , focusing on not only what generates language learning motivation but also on what can sustain motivation long enough. In terms of research method, integration of quantitative and qualitative method (e.g., questionnaire + interview ) has almost become a new trend in the L2 motivation field.

Secondly, Dörnyei and Ushioda provide ideas for theoretical and empirical research by reviewing studies made by them and other researchers. Although a great deal of knowledge has been accumulated, Dörnyei and Ushioda particularly point out two under-explored topics: unconscious motivation and language learner engagement. They also recommend two cutting-edge approaches: “small lens” approaches (actual cognitive process in the mastery of an L2) and complex dynamic systems approach.

Lastly, it is a valuable guide for L2 teachers and researchers. Chapter 5 presents strategies and approaches to motivating language learners such as promoting student engagement and applying technology. Particularly, the up-to-date and rich selection of empirical studies in Chapter 9 are vivid illustration of the research methods, showing language teachers templates of doing research by teaching. The research interests of important scholars listed in Chapter 11 allow language teachers and researchers to follow the current significant research areas on L2 motivation.

Nevertheless, there are still some aspects for this book to be improved in the next edition. First, readers may hope to find a detailed discussion of the social cultural factors impacting teachers' motivation. Second, the key researchers listed in Chapter 11 are mainly in the English world. Had the authors included more key researchers in the non-English world, it would have been more insightful.

All in all, with this new edition, Dörnyei and Ushioda make a very important contribution to our radically new understanding of teaching and researching motivation. As a clear and comprehensive theory-driven account of motivation, this volume can be applied in many different ways. It can be used as a reference book for teachers and/or researchers to review and reflect on motivation teaching and research practice. In addition, it is also of significance in pre-service and in-service teacher education programme. Graduates in applied linguistics, education and psychology can gain plenty of insights from the research findings and additional information offered in this volume. Therefore, this volume is an invaluable resource for teachers and researchers alike.

Author Contributions

YY: drafts and revision. HZ: revision and supervision. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

This opinion was supported by the Project of Teaching Reform at Tianjin University of Technology (Grant No: KG20-08).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher's Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

  • Dörnyei Z., Ushioda E. (2021). Teaching and Researching Motivation . London: Taylor and Francis. [ Google Scholar ]

How to Craft Killer Motivation Research Papers? (Even If You Hate Writing)

Note: Only 'PhD' academic level option is available for Dissertation

11 Sep 2019

motivation research papers

In turn, the concept of motivation itself is definitely familiar to college and university students. Professors often give assignments to prepare motivation research papers asking to disclose the concept of motivation from different angles. Though writing on this topic might be interesting, the situation changes when submission deadlines are looming. Here is an ultimate guide from WePapers.com research paper writing service on how to choose a winning topic and produce a good outline.

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How to Choose Motivation Research Paper Topics + SAMPLE IDEAS

Sometimes students get their motivation research paper topic from professors but if you are lucky to choose it on your own, think wisely. Firstly, consider a challenging issue you are interested in. In this case, you won’t suffer from boredom doing the research as you are likely to discover a lot of interesting insights and will enjoy the writing process for sure. Don’t pick up too general or technical topics. If your subject is too broad, your paper has all chances to fail and look like a typical overview. Narrow the matter to a particular idea or concept and make it manageable and specific. Below are some of the leadership and motivation research paper topics we recommend to consider:

  • What is the motivation? How does expectancy theory work?
  • Role, boundaries, and responsibilities of a teacher.
  • Explain the concept of intrinsic motivation.
  • How motivation may change someone’s life for the better?
  • How motivation varies from different people?
  • What are the types of motivation?
  • Is it possible to strengthen motivation?
  • Can fear and anxiety be considered as motivators?

Employee Motivation Research Paper Topic Examples

Nowadays companies are investing more and more resources in boosting employees' productivity to maximize business profits. Motivating employees is a crucial aspect that leads to performance of the organization as a whole. Motivated workers help increase productivity and allow a company to reach higher levels of output. Therefore, this issue draws a good fair of attention not only from human resources managers at the workplace but also from professors within business or sociology courses.

When writing employee motivation and organizational performance research papers , we recommend to narrow the idea and look at it from a certain angle. Here you are welcome to pore over different topics for your essay on employee motivation:

  • What is motivation for employees? How does it work?
  • How to keep workers motivated in stressful times?
  • How do the company’s culture code and values affect employee motivation?
  • What are the possible results the company can face because of the demotivated workforce?
  • How to employ game techniques to enhance motivation in the workplace?
  • Influence of recognition and reward programs on employee motivation.
  • What is the difference in motivation in public and private companies? Whose workers are motivated better?
  • Should motivation programs necessarily involve money reward?
  • Motivational techniques in an environment of non-profit organization.

Tips for Working Motivation Research Paper Outline

So, you have selected a topic and conducted research that has generated tons of great ideas. What’s next? Now you need to organize the insights as an outline for your further impressive paper. Don’t skip this critical process because without outline your piece of content will lack focus and, as a result, you will spend much more time revising the draft and trying to find any sense in the jumbled thoughts. It serves as a roadmap that helps to expand thesis statement and makes your follow the point.

Below we provide a motivation research paper sample outline that can easily be used for writing an essay on any other subject:

  • Introduction - announces the topic, highlights its importance and relevance, provides context, rationale, and the motivation of a research paper.
  • Main body - the central part of your research paper that includes key findings, general information about the issue, and detailed research. Here you collect and arrange evidence that will induce readers to your arguments. You can even include counterarguments to your ideas with explanation why they are wrong. Opposing facts prove your thorough knowledge of the subject and that you have really managed in-depth research. The number of paragraphs usually corresponds to the number of arguments.
  • Conclusion – summary of main points defining why the issue matters. It shouldn’t be lengthy but rather informative and catchy to make the entire paper sink into readers’ memory.

Producing a motivation research paper may seem like a mission impossible, yet with the ideas above it shouldn’t be that stressful. Make sure you stick to the outline, and you will always be on the right track. Anyway, if you need any writing assistance or still looking for college research papers for sale, just let us know. We will easily take the mind-numbing academic pressures off you.

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Student Experience

Build motivation to write that paper.

The cursor continues to blink on the blank document. You have a paper to write for your next class. It’s due soon. And you have no idea what to write, or how to start.

The kids are in bed, hopefully sound asleep. Your spouse is doing his or her own work. Now, it’s time for you to write the research essay you’d been procrastinating on all week.

But, the words just don’t come. And you continue to stare at the blinking cursor.

Odds are, this hesitation, frustration and inability to form complete sentences has happened to all students. You may rather want to binge watch your new show, or try out a new cookie recipe or engage in some other favorite hobby than try and write a paper.

Yet writing that paper brings you another step closer to pursuing your personal and professional goals. You know it’s important.

Wonder how to build up the inspiration to let your words start flowing? Follow these simple steps to cultivate motivation and get that paper written:

FIND THE RIGHT WRITING SPOT

In another blog article , we mentioned a way to improve your study habits includes finding the right location. To be ready to write, your environment should cater to your need to focus.

As an adult student, the location you work may require flexibility. It may be a coffee shop a few blocks down from your house; or an empty conference room in your office; or a quiet library workspace.

And if you’re unable to escape the constant craziness of life, noise-canceling headphones may just be a good investment.

The goal in establishing your working environment is to let your thoughts and words flow freely, without constant interruptions.

TURN OFF THE PHONE

You’re just about to write a sentence and you hear a ‘ping’ from your phone notifying you that someone just liked your photo on Facebook. And soon, rather than writing your next paragraph in your paper, you are commenting on your friend’s updated profile picture.

Some may find turning off their phone to work unimaginable. How can you not be constantly available via technology? Yet, to increase your focus on the paper that has yet to be written, put it on silent.

Removing the distraction of bings and rings from texts, emails and Facebook notifications can turn your attention from the hundreds of other things going on to forming that intro, body and conclusion of your paper.

PLAN A GOAL

Have six pages to write? It may not be best to set your goal to finish all six in one sitting. Such a goal may feel overwhelmingly daunting – creating another barrier in finishing the assignment.

In setting your goal for writing, be sure to follow the S.M.A.R.T. acronym to ensure success.

  • S—Specific: Rather than telling yourself you’ll write a few sentences and cite a few sources, get detailed. Write three pages with using at least three sources.
  • M—Measurable: Page length or word count are benchmarks that can be easily measured and evaluated.
  • A—Achievable: Ensure the length and content goal you set is actually something you can physically and mentally complete in the time you allot yourself. Writing ten pages in a half hour may just be too extreme.
  • R—Relevant: The goal you set in writing your paper should assist you in pursuing your professional and personal endeavors. It’s not just an assignment. It’s equipping you.
  • T—Timely: Setting a deadline, whether given on the syllabus or the one you give yourself before that, gives you the mental note of what and when to get it done. Perhaps you could break up your work on the paper into different sections and set reachable deadlines for each section.

REMEMBER WHY YOU’RE WRITING

Writing the paper is about more than getting a good grade. It’s more than moving on to the next course. Writing this paper is one more step toward achieving your personal and professional goals.

Think about and answer the question of why you’re pursuing your degree. It may be a combination of factors: to show your children your commitment to education, to receive a promotion, to follow a dream that you missed out on, to perform better in your current role.

Whatever your answer, you’re in your degree program for a reason. Getting your thoughts and arguments down on paper is just one next step toward fulfilling that reason.

Cornerstone University offers numerous Academic Support resources to equip you to succeed in your degree program, whether that’s in writing a paper or other assignment.

Discover Academic Support

how to write motivation in a research paper

Ellie Walburg

Ellie Walburg (B.S. ’17, M.B.A. ’20) serves as the admissions communications coordinator for Cornerstone University’s Professional & Graduate Studies division.

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Writing Motivation in School: a Systematic Review of Empirical Research in the Early Twenty-First Century

  • Review Article
  • Published: 19 June 2020
  • Volume 33 , pages 213–247, ( 2021 )

Cite this article

  • Ana Camacho   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-5328-966X 1 ,
  • Rui A. Alves   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-1657-8945 1 &
  • Pietro Boscolo 2  

5492 Accesses

58 Citations

7 Altmetric

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Motivation is a catalyst of writing performance in school. In this article, we report a systematic review of empirical studies on writing motivation conducted in school settings, published between 2000 and 2018 in peer-reviewed journals. We aimed to (1) examine how motivational constructs have been defined in writing research; (2) analyze group differences in writing motivation; (3) unveil effects of motivation on writing performance; (4) gather evidence on teaching practices supporting writing motivation; and (5) examine the impact of digital tools on writing motivation. Through database and hand searches, we located 82 articles that met eligibility criteria. Articles were written in English, focused on students in grades 1–12, and included at least one quantitative or qualitative measure of writing motivation. Across the 82 studies, 24 motivation-related constructs were identified. In 46% of the cases, these constructs were unclearly defined or not defined. Studies showed that overall girls were more motivated to write than boys. Most studies indicated moderate positive associations between motivation and writing performance measures. Authors also examined how students’ writing motivation was influenced by teaching practices, such as handwriting instruction, self-regulated strategy development instruction, and collaborative writing. Digital tools were found to have a positive effect on motivation. Based on this review, we suggest that to move the field forward, researchers need to accurately define motivational constructs; give further attention to understudied motivational constructs; examine both individual and contextual factors; conduct longitudinal studies; identify evidence-based practices that could inform professional development programs for teachers; and test long-term effects of digital tools.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Steve Graham and Hilde Van Keer for invaluable comments on earlier versions of this article. The authors thank also Mariana Silva for contributing to the study quality assessment.

This work was supported by a grant attributed to the first author from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (grant SFRH/BD/116281/2016).

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Camacho, A., Alves, R.A. & Boscolo, P. Writing Motivation in School: a Systematic Review of Empirical Research in the Early Twenty-First Century. Educ Psychol Rev 33 , 213–247 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-020-09530-4

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  • How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

Published on October 12, 2022 by Shona McCombes and Tegan George. Revised on November 21, 2023.

Structure of a research proposal

A research proposal describes what you will investigate, why it’s important, and how you will conduct your research.

The format of a research proposal varies between fields, but most proposals will contain at least these elements:

Introduction

Literature review.

  • Research design

Reference list

While the sections may vary, the overall objective is always the same. A research proposal serves as a blueprint and guide for your research plan, helping you get organized and feel confident in the path forward you choose to take.

Table of contents

Research proposal purpose, research proposal examples, research design and methods, contribution to knowledge, research schedule, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about research proposals.

Academics often have to write research proposals to get funding for their projects. As a student, you might have to write a research proposal as part of a grad school application , or prior to starting your thesis or dissertation .

In addition to helping you figure out what your research can look like, a proposal can also serve to demonstrate why your project is worth pursuing to a funder, educational institution, or supervisor.

Research proposal length

The length of a research proposal can vary quite a bit. A bachelor’s or master’s thesis proposal can be just a few pages, while proposals for PhD dissertations or research funding are usually much longer and more detailed. Your supervisor can help you determine the best length for your work.

One trick to get started is to think of your proposal’s structure as a shorter version of your thesis or dissertation , only without the results , conclusion and discussion sections.

Download our research proposal template

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Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

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how to write motivation in a research paper

Writing a research proposal can be quite challenging, but a good starting point could be to look at some examples. We’ve included a few for you below.

  • Example research proposal #1: “A Conceptual Framework for Scheduling Constraint Management”
  • Example research proposal #2: “Medical Students as Mediators of Change in Tobacco Use”

Like your dissertation or thesis, the proposal will usually have a title page that includes:

  • The proposed title of your project
  • Your supervisor’s name
  • Your institution and department

The first part of your proposal is the initial pitch for your project. Make sure it succinctly explains what you want to do and why.

Your introduction should:

  • Introduce your topic
  • Give necessary background and context
  • Outline your  problem statement  and research questions

To guide your introduction , include information about:

  • Who could have an interest in the topic (e.g., scientists, policymakers)
  • How much is already known about the topic
  • What is missing from this current knowledge
  • What new insights your research will contribute
  • Why you believe this research is worth doing

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As you get started, it’s important to demonstrate that you’re familiar with the most important research on your topic. A strong literature review  shows your reader that your project has a solid foundation in existing knowledge or theory. It also shows that you’re not simply repeating what other people have already done or said, but rather using existing research as a jumping-off point for your own.

In this section, share exactly how your project will contribute to ongoing conversations in the field by:

  • Comparing and contrasting the main theories, methods, and debates
  • Examining the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches
  • Explaining how will you build on, challenge, or synthesize prior scholarship

Following the literature review, restate your main  objectives . This brings the focus back to your own project. Next, your research design or methodology section will describe your overall approach, and the practical steps you will take to answer your research questions.

To finish your proposal on a strong note, explore the potential implications of your research for your field. Emphasize again what you aim to contribute and why it matters.

For example, your results might have implications for:

  • Improving best practices
  • Informing policymaking decisions
  • Strengthening a theory or model
  • Challenging popular or scientific beliefs
  • Creating a basis for future research

Last but not least, your research proposal must include correct citations for every source you have used, compiled in a reference list . To create citations quickly and easily, you can use our free APA citation generator .

Some institutions or funders require a detailed timeline of the project, asking you to forecast what you will do at each stage and how long it may take. While not always required, be sure to check the requirements of your project.

Here’s an example schedule to help you get started. You can also download a template at the button below.

Download our research schedule template

If you are applying for research funding, chances are you will have to include a detailed budget. This shows your estimates of how much each part of your project will cost.

Make sure to check what type of costs the funding body will agree to cover. For each item, include:

  • Cost : exactly how much money do you need?
  • Justification : why is this cost necessary to complete the research?
  • Source : how did you calculate the amount?

To determine your budget, think about:

  • Travel costs : do you need to go somewhere to collect your data? How will you get there, and how much time will you need? What will you do there (e.g., interviews, archival research)?
  • Materials : do you need access to any tools or technologies?
  • Help : do you need to hire any research assistants for the project? What will they do, and how much will you pay them?

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

Methodology

  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility

 Statistics

  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

Once you’ve decided on your research objectives , you need to explain them in your paper, at the end of your problem statement .

Keep your research objectives clear and concise, and use appropriate verbs to accurately convey the work that you will carry out for each one.

I will compare …

A research aim is a broad statement indicating the general purpose of your research project. It should appear in your introduction at the end of your problem statement , before your research objectives.

Research objectives are more specific than your research aim. They indicate the specific ways you’ll address the overarching aim.

A PhD, which is short for philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy in Latin), is the highest university degree that can be obtained. In a PhD, students spend 3–5 years writing a dissertation , which aims to make a significant, original contribution to current knowledge.

A PhD is intended to prepare students for a career as a researcher, whether that be in academia, the public sector, or the private sector.

A master’s is a 1- or 2-year graduate degree that can prepare you for a variety of careers.

All master’s involve graduate-level coursework. Some are research-intensive and intend to prepare students for further study in a PhD; these usually require their students to write a master’s thesis . Others focus on professional training for a specific career.

Critical thinking refers to the ability to evaluate information and to be aware of biases or assumptions, including your own.

Like information literacy , it involves evaluating arguments, identifying and solving problems in an objective and systematic way, and clearly communicating your ideas.

The best way to remember the difference between a research plan and a research proposal is that they have fundamentally different audiences. A research plan helps you, the researcher, organize your thoughts. On the other hand, a dissertation proposal or research proposal aims to convince others (e.g., a supervisor, a funding body, or a dissertation committee) that your research topic is relevant and worthy of being conducted.

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McCombes, S. & George, T. (2023, November 21). How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved February 21, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/research-process/research-proposal/

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Critical Writing Program: Decision Making - Spring 2024: Researching the White Paper

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Research the White Paper

Researching the White Paper:

The process of researching and composing a white paper shares some similarities with the kind of research and writing one does for a high school or college research paper. What’s important for writers of white papers to grasp, however, is how much this genre differs from a research paper.  First, the author of a white paper already recognizes that there is a problem to be solved, a decision to be made, and the job of the author is to provide readers with substantive information to help them make some kind of decision--which may include a decision to do more research because major gaps remain. 

Thus, a white paper author would not “brainstorm” a topic. Instead, the white paper author would get busy figuring out how the problem is defined by those who are experiencing it as a problem. Typically that research begins in popular culture--social media, surveys, interviews, newspapers. Once the author has a handle on how the problem is being defined and experienced, its history and its impact, what people in the trenches believe might be the best or worst ways of addressing it, the author then will turn to academic scholarship as well as “grey” literature (more about that later).  Unlike a school research paper, the author does not set out to argue for or against a particular position, and then devote the majority of effort to finding sources to support the selected position.  Instead, the author sets out in good faith to do as much fact-finding as possible, and thus research is likely to present multiple, conflicting, and overlapping perspectives. When people research out of a genuine desire to understand and solve a problem, they listen to every source that may offer helpful information. They will thus have to do much more analysis, synthesis, and sorting of that information, which will often not fall neatly into a “pro” or “con” camp:  Solution A may, for example, solve one part of the problem but exacerbate another part of the problem. Solution C may sound like what everyone wants, but what if it’s built on a set of data that have been criticized by another reliable source?  And so it goes. 

For example, if you are trying to write a white paper on the opioid crisis, you may focus on the value of  providing free, sterilized needles--which do indeed reduce disease, and also provide an opportunity for the health care provider distributing them to offer addiction treatment to the user. However, the free needles are sometimes discarded on the ground, posing a danger to others; or they may be shared; or they may encourage more drug usage. All of those things can be true at once; a reader will want to know about all of these considerations in order to make an informed decision. That is the challenging job of the white paper author.     
 The research you do for your white paper will require that you identify a specific problem, seek popular culture sources to help define the problem, its history, its significance and impact for people affected by it.  You will then delve into academic and grey literature to learn about the way scholars and others with professional expertise answer these same questions. In this way, you will create creating a layered, complex portrait that provides readers with a substantive exploration useful for deliberating and decision-making. You will also likely need to find or create images, including tables, figures, illustrations or photographs, and you will document all of your sources. 

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ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

The effects of online game addiction on reduced academic achievement motivation among chinese college students: the mediating role of learning engagement.

Rui-Qi Sun&#x;

  • 1 BinZhou College of Science and Technology, Binzhou, China
  • 2 Binzhou Polytechnic, Binzhou, China
  • 3 Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
  • 4 National Institute of Vocational Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China

Introduction: The present study aimed to examine the effects of online game addiction on reduced academic achievement motivation, and the mediating role of learning engagement among Chinese college students to investigate the relationships between the three variables.

Methods: The study used convenience sampling to recruit Chinese university students to participate voluntarily. A total of 443 valid questionnaires were collected through the Questionnaire Star application. The average age of the participants was 18.77 years old, with 157 males and 286 females. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS and AMOS.

Results: (1) Chinese college students’ online game addiction negatively affected their behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement (the three dimensions of learning engagement); (2) behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement negatively affected their reduced academic achievement motivation; (3) learning engagement mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation.

1. Introduction

Online games, along with improvements in technology, have entered the daily life of college students through the popularity of computers, smartphones, PSPs (PlayStation Portable), and other gaming devices. Online game addiction has recently become a critical problem affecting college students’ studies and lives. As early as 2018, online game addiction was officially included in the category of “addictive mental disorders” by the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) was updated specifically to include the category of “Internet Gaming Disorder” (IGD). Prior research investigating Chinese college students’ online game addiction status mostly comprised regional small-scale studies. For example, a study on 394 college students in Chengde City, Hebei province, China showed that the rate of online game addiction was about 9% ( Cui et al., 2021 ). According to the results of an online game survey conducted by China Youth Network (2019) on 682 Chinese college students who played online games, nearly 60% of participants played games for more than 1 h a day, over 30% stayed up late because of playing games, over 40% thought that playing games had affected their physical health, over 70% claimed that games did not affect their studies, and over 60% had spent money on online games. This phenomenon has been exacerbated by the fact that smartphones and various portable gaming devices have become new vehicles for gaming with the development of technology. The increase in the frequency or time spent on daily gaming among adolescents implies a growth in the probability of gaming addiction, while an increase in the level of education decreases the probability of gaming addiction ( Esposito et al., 2020 ; Kesici, 2020 ). Moreover, during the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents’ video game use and the severity of online gaming disorders increased significantly ( Teng et al., 2021 ).

A large body of literature on the relationship between problematic smartphone use and academic performance has illustrated the varying adverse effects of excessive smartphone obsession ( Durak, 2018 ; Mendoza et al., 2018 ; Rozgonjuk et al., 2018 ). These effects are manifested in three critical ways: first, the more frequently cell phones are used during study, the greater the negative impact on academic performance and achievement; second, students are required to master the basic skills and cognitive abilities to succeed academically, which are negatively affected by excessive cell phone use and addiction ( Sunday et al., 2021 ); third, online game addiction negatively affects students’ learning motivation ( Demir and Kutlu, 2018 ; Eliyani and Sari, 2021 ). However, there is currently a lack of scientifically objective means of effective data collection regarding online game addiction among college students in China, such as big data. Hong R. Z. et al. (2021) and Nong et al. (2023) suggested that the impact of addiction on students’ learning should be explored more deeply.

Since the 1990s, learning engagement has been regarded as a positive behavioral practice in learning in Europe and the United States, and plays an important role in the field of higher education research ( Axelson and Flick, 2010 ). Recently, studies on learning engagement among college students have also been a hot topic in various countries ( Guo et al., 2021 ). According to Fredricks et al. (2004) , learning engagement includes three dimensions: behavioral, emotional, and cognitive.

The concept of behavioral engagement encompasses three aspects: first, positive behavior in the classroom, such as following school rules and regulations and classroom norms; second, engagement in learning; and third, active participation in school activities ( Finn et al., 1995 ). Emotional engagement refers to students’ responses to their academic content and learning environment. The emotional responses to academic content include students’ emotional responses such as interest or disinterest in learning during academic activities ( Kahu and Nelson, 2018 ), while the emotional responses to the learning environment refer to students’ identification with their peers, teachers, and the school environment ( Stipek, 2002 ). Cognitive engagement is often associated with internal processes such as deep processing, using cognitive strategies, self-regulation, investment in learning, the ability to think reflectively, and making connections in daily life ( Khan et al., 2017 ). Cognitive engagement emphasizes the student’s investment in learning and self-regulation or strategies.

According to Yang X. et al. (2021) , learning engagement refers to students’ socialization, behavioral intensity, affective qualities, and use of cognitive strategies in performing learning activities. Besides, Kuh et al. (2007) argued that learning engagement was “the amount of time and effort students devote to instructional goals and meaningful educational practices.” Learning engagement is not only an important indicator of students’ learning process, but also a significant predictor of students’ academic achievement ( Zhang, 2012 ). It is also an essential factor in promoting college students’ academic success and improving education quality.

As one of the crucial components of students’ learning motivation ( Han and Lu, 2018 ), achievement motivation is the driving force behind an individual’s efforts to put energy into what he or she perceives to be valuable and meaningful to achieve a desired outcome ( Story et al., 2009 ). It can be considered as achievement motivation when an individual’s behavior involves “competing at a standard of excellence” ( Brunstein and Heckhausen, 2018 ). Students’ achievement motivation ensures the continuity of learning activities, achieving academic excellence and desired goals ( Sopiah, 2021 ). Based on the concept of achievement motivation, academic achievement motivation refers to the mental perceptions or intentions that students carry out regarding their academic achievement, a cognitive structure by which students perceive success or failure and determine their behavior ( Elliot and Church, 1997 ). Related research also suggests that motivation is one variable that significantly predicts learning engagement ( Xiong et al., 2015 ).

Therefore, it is worthwhile to investigate the internal influence mechanism of college students’ online game addiction on their reduced academic achievement motivation and the role of learning engagement, which is also an issue that cannot be ignored in higher education research. The present study explored the relationship between online game addiction, learning engagement, and reduced academic achievement motivation among college students by establishing a structural equation model (SEM) to shed light on the problem of online game addiction among college students.

2. Research model and hypotheses

2.1. research model.

Previous research usually regarded learning engagement as a variable of one or two dimensions, and scholars tend to favor the dimension of behavioral engagement. However, other ignored dimensions are inseparable parts of learning engagement ( Dincer et al., 2019 ). In a multi-dimensional model, the mutual terms of each dimension form a single composite structure. Therefore, the present study took the structure proposed by Fredricks et al. (2004) as a reference, divided learning engagement into behavioral, emotional, and cognitive dimensions as mediating variables, and explored the relationship between online game addiction, learning engagement, and reduced academic achievement motivation. The research frame diagram is shown in Figure 1 .

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Figure 1 . The research model.

2.2. Research questions

2.2.1. the relationship between online game addiction and learning engagement.

Learning engagement has been viewed as a multidimensional concept in previous studies. Finn (1989) proposed the participation-identification model to make pioneering progress in learning engagement study. Schaufeli et al. (2002) suggested that learning engagement was an active, fulfilling mental state associated with learning. Chapman (2002) pointed out affective, behavioral, and cognitive criteria for assessing students’ learning engagement based on previous research. Fredricks et al. (2004) systematically outlined learning engagement as an integration of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement. The updated International Classification of Diseases [ World Health Organization (WHO), 2018a , b ] specifies several diagnostic criteria for gaming addiction, including the abandonment of other activities, the loss of interest in other previous hobbies, and the loss or potential loss of work and social interaction because of gaming. Past studies have shown the adverse effects of excessive Internet usage on students’ learning. Short video addiction negatively affects intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivation ( Ye et al., 2022 ). Students’ cell phone addiction negatively affects academic commitment, academic performance, and relationship facilitation, all of which negatively affect their academic achievement ( Tian et al., 2021 ). The amount of time spent surfing the Internet and playing games has been identified to negatively affect students’ cognitive ability ( Pan et al., 2022 ). College students’ cell phone addiction, mainly reflected in cell phone social addiction and game entertainment addiction, has also been noted to impact learning engagement; specifically, the higher the level of addiction, the lower the learning engagement ( Qi et al., 2020 ). Gao et al. (2021) also showed that cell phone addiction among college students could negatively affect their learning engagement. Choi (2019) showed that excessive use of cell phones might contribute to smartphone addiction, which also affects students’ learning engagement. Accordingly, the following three research hypotheses were proposed.

H1 : Online game addiction negatively affects behavioral engagement.
H2 : Online game addiction negatively affects emotional engagement.
H3 : Online game addiction negatively affects cognitive engagement.

2.2.2. The relationship between learning engagement and reduced academic achievement motivation

Achievement motivation is people’s pursuit of maximizing individual value, which embodies an innate drive, including the need for achievement, and can be divided into two parts: the intention to succeed and the intention to avoid failure ( McClelland et al., 1976 ). On this basis, Weiner (1985) proposed the attributional theory of achievement motivation, suggesting that individuals’ personality differences, as well as the experience of success and failure, could influence their achievement attributions and that an individual’s previous achievement attributions would affect his or her expectations and emotions for the subsequent achievement behavior while expectations and emotions could guide motivated behavior. Birch and Ladd (1997) indicated that behavioral engagement involved positive behavioral attitudes such as hard work, persistence, concentration, willingness to ask questions, and active participation in class discussions to complete class assignments. Students’ attitudes toward learning are positively related to achievement motivation ( Bakar et al., 2010 ). Emotional engagement involves students’ sense of identity with their peers, teachers, and the school environment ( Stipek, 2002 ). Students’ perceptions of the school environment influence their achievement motivation ( Wang and Eccles, 2013 ). Cognitive engagement encompasses the ability to use cognitive strategies, self-regulation, investment in learning, and reflective thinking ( Khan et al., 2017 ). Learning independence and problem-solving abilities predict student motivation ( Saeid and Eslaminejad, 2017 ). Hu et al. (2021) indicated that cognitive engagement had the most significant effect on students’ academic achievement among the learning engagement dimensions, and that emotional engagement was also an important factor influencing students’ academic achievement. Therefore, the following three research hypotheses were proposed:

H4 : Behavioral engagement significantly and negatively affects the reduced academic achievement motivation.
H5 : Emotional engagement significantly and negatively affects the reduced academic achievement motivation.
H6 : Cognitive engagement significantly and negatively affects the reduced academic achievement motivation.

2.2.3. The relationship between online game addiction, learning engagement, and reduced academic achievement motivation

Past studies have demonstrated the relationship between online game addiction and students’ achievement motivation. For example, a significant negative correlation between social network addiction and students’ motivation to progress has been reported ( Haji Anzehai, 2020 ), and a significant negative correlation between Internet addiction and students’ achievement motivation has been reported ( Cao et al., 2008 ). Students addicted to online games generally have lower academic achievement motivation because they lack precise academic planning and motivation ( Chen and Gu, 2019 ). Yayman and Bilgin (2020) pointed out a correlation between social media addiction and online game addiction. Accordingly, there might be a negative correlation between online game addiction and academic achievement motivation among college students.

Students addicted to online games generally have lower motivation for academic achievement because they lack precise academic planning and learning motivation ( Chen and Gu, 2019 ). Similarly, Haji Anzehai (2020) reported a significant negative correlation between social network addiction and students’ motivation to progress.

Learning engagement is often explored as a mediating variable in education research. Zhang et al. (2018) found that learning engagement was an essential mediator of the negative effect of internet addiction on academic achievement in late adolescence and is a key factor in the decline in academic achievement due to students’ internet addiction. Li et al. (2019) noted that college students’ social networking site addiction significantly negatively affected their learning engagement, and learning engagement mediated the relationship between social networking addiction and academic achievement. Accordingly, the following research hypothesis was proposed.

H7 : Learning engagement mediates the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation.

3. Research methodology and design

3.1. survey implementation.

The present study employed the Questionnaire Star application for online questionnaire distribution. Convenience sampling was adopted to recruit Chinese college students to participate voluntarily. The data were collected from October 2021 to January 2022 from a higher vocational college in Shandong province, China. Participants were first-and second-year students. According to Shumacker and Lomax (2016) , the number of participants in SEM studies should be approximately between 100 and 500 or more. In the present study, 500 questionnaires were returned, and 443 were valid after excluding invalid responses. The mean age of the participants was 18.77 years. There were 157 male students, accounting for 35.4% of the total sample, and 286 female students, accounting for 64.6%.

3.2. Measurement instruments

The present empirical study employed quantitative research methods by collecting questionnaires for data analysis. The items of questionnaires were adapted from research findings based on corresponding theories and were reviewed by experts to confirm the content validity of the instruments. The distributed questionnaire was a Likert 5-point scale (1 for strongly disagree , 2 for disagree , 3 for average , 4 for agree , and 5 for strongly agree ). After the questionnaire was collected, item analysis was conducted first, followed by reliability and validity analysis of the questionnaire constructs using SPSS23 to test whether the scale met the criteria. Finally, research model validation was conducted.

3.2.1. Online game addiction

In the present study, online game addiction referred to the addictive behavior of college students in online games, including mobile games and online games. The present study adopted a game addiction scale compiled by Wu et al. (2021) and adapted the items based on the definition of online game addiction. The adapted scale had 10 items. Two examples of the adapted items in the scale were: “I will put down what should be done and spend my time playing online games” and “My excitement or expectation of playing an online game is far better than other interpersonal interactions.”

3.2.2. Learning engagement

In the present study, learning engagement included students’ academic engagement in three dimensions: behavioral, emotional, and cognitive. The learning engagement scale compiled by Luan et al. (2020) was adapted based on its definition. The adapted scale had 26 questions in three dimensions: behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement. Two examples of the adapted items in the scale are: “I like to actively explore unfamiliar things when I am doing my homework” and “I will remind myself to double-check the places where I tend to make mistakes in my homework.”

3.2.3. Reduced academic achievement motivation

Reduced academic achievement motivation in the present study refers to the reduction in college students’ intrinsic tendency to enjoy challenges and achieve academic goals and academic success. The achievement motivation scale developed by Ye et al. (2020) was adapted to measure reduced academic achievement motivation. The adapted scale had 10 items. Two examples of the adapted items in the scale are: “Since playing online games, I do not believe that the effectiveness of learning is up to me, but that it depends on other people or the environment” and “Since I often play online games, I am satisfied with my current academic performance or achievement and do not seek higher academic challenges.”

4. Results and discussion

4.1. internal validity analysis of the measurement instruments.

In the present study, item analysis was conducted using first-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), which can reflect the degree of measured variables’ performance within a smaller construct ( Hafiz and Shaari, 2013 ). The first-order CFA is based on the streamlined model and the principle of independence of residuals. According to Hair et al. (2010) and Kenny et al. (2015) , it is recommended that the value of χ 2 / df in the model fitness indices should be less than 5; the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) value should be greater than 0.100; the values of the goodness of fit index (GFI) and adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) should not be lower than 0.800; the factor loading (FL) values of the constructs should also be greater than 0.500. Based on the criteria above, the items measuring the online game addiction construct were reduced from 10 to seven; the items measuring the behavioral engagement construct were reduced from nine to six; the items measuring the emotional engagement construct were reduced from nine to six; the items measuring the cognitive engagement construct were reduced from eight to six; and the items measuring the reduced academic achievement motivation construct was reduced from 10 to six, as shown in Table 1 .

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Table 1 . First-order confirmatory factor analysis.

4.2. Construct reliability and validity analysis

In order to determine the internal consistency of the constructs, the reliability of the questionnaire was tested using Cronbach’ s α value. According to Hair et al. (2010) , a Cronbach’ s α value greater than 0.700 indicates an excellent internal consistency among the items, and the constructs’ composite reliability (CR) values should exceed 0.700 to meet the criteria. In the present study, the Cronbach’ s α values for the constructs ranged from 0.911 to 0.960, and the CR values ranged from 0.913 to 0.916, which met the criteria, as shown in Table 2 .

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Table 2 . Construct reliability and validity of constructs.

In the present study, convergent validity was confirmed by two types of indicators, FL and average variance extracted (AVE). According to Hair et al. (2011) , an FL value should be greater than 0.500, and items with an FL value less than 0.500 should be removed; and AVE values should be greater than 0.500. In the present study, the FL values of the constructs ranged from 0.526 to 0.932, and the AVE values ranged from 0.600 to 0.805; all dimensions met the recommended criteria, as shown in Table 2 .

According to Awang (2015) and Hair et al. (2011) , the square root of the AVE of each construct (latent variable) should be greater than its correlation coefficient values with other constructs to indicate the ideal discriminant validity. The results of the present study showed that the three constructs of online game addiction, learning engagement, and reduced academic achievement motivation had good discriminant validity in the present study, as shown in Table 3 .

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Table 3 . Discriminant validity analysis.

4.3. Correlation analysis

Pearson’s correlation coefficient is usually used to determine the closeness of the relationship between variables. A correlation coefficient greater than 0.8 indicates a high correlation between variables; a correlation coefficient between 0.3 and 0.8 indicates a moderate correlation between variables; while a correlation of less than 0.3 indicates a low correlation. Table 4 shows the Correlation Analysis results. Online game addiction was moderately negatively correlated with behavioral engagement ( r  = −0.402, p  < 0.001), moderately negatively correlated with emotional engagement ( r  = −0.352, p  < 0.001), slightly negatively correlated with cognitive engagement ( r  = −0.288, p  < 0.001), and slightly positively correlated with reduced academic achievement motivation ( r  = 0.295, p  < 0.001). Behavioral engagement was moderately positively correlated with emotional engagement ( r  = 0.696, p  < 0.001), moderately positively correlated with cognitive engagement ( r  = 0.601, p  < 0.001), and moderately negatively correlated with reduced academic achievement motivation ( r  = −0.497, p  < 0.001). Emotional engagement was moderately positively correlated with cognitive engagement ( r  = 0.787, p  < 0.001) and moderately negatively correlated with reduced academic achievement motivation ( r  = −0.528, p  < 0.001). Cognitive engagement was moderately negatively correlated with reduced motivation for academic achievement ( r  = −0.528, p  < 0.001).

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Table 4 . Correlation analysis.

4.4. Analysis of fitness of the measurement model

According to Hair et al. (2010) and Abedi et al. (2015) , the following criteria should be met in the analysis for measurement model fitness: the ratio of chi-squared and degree of freedom ( χ 2 / df ) should be less than 5; the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) should not exceed 0.100; the goodness of fit index (GFI), adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI), normed fit index (NFI), non-normed fit index (NNFI), comparative fit index (CFI), incremental fit index (IFI) and relative fit index (RFI) should be higher than 0.800; and the parsimonious normed fit index (PNFI) and the parsimonious fitness of fit index (PGFI) should be higher than 0.500. The model fitness indices in the present study were χ 2  = 1434.8, df  = 428, χ 2 / df  = 3.352, RMSEA = 0.073, GFI = 0.837, AGFI = 0.811, NFI = 0.899, NNFI = 0.920, CFI = 0.927, IFI = 0.927, RFI = 0.890, PNFI = 0.827, and PGFI = 0.722. The results were in accordance with the criteria, indicating a good fitness of the model in the present study ( Table 5 ).

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Table 5 . Direct effects analysis.

4.5. Validation of the research model

Online game addiction had a negative effect on behavioral engagement ( β  = −0.486; t  = −9.143; p < 0.001). Online game addiction had a negative effect on emotional engagement ( β  = −0.430; t  = −8.054; p < 0.001). Online game addiction had a negative effect on cognitive engagement ( β  = −0.370; t  = −7.180; p < 0.001). Online game addiction had a positive effect on reduced academic achievement motivation ( β  = 0.19; t = −2.776; p < 0.01). Behavioral engagement had a negative effect on reduced academic achievement motivation ( β  = −0.238; t  = −3.759; p < 0.001). Emotional engagement had a negative effect on reduced academic achievement motivation ( β  = −0.221; t  = −2.687; p < 0.01), and cognitive engagement had a negative effect on reduced academic achievement motivation ( β  = −0.265; t  = −3.581; p < 0.01), as shown in Figure 2 Table 6 .

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Figure 2 . Validation of the research model. *** p  < 0.001.

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Table 6 . Indirect effects analysis.

Cohen’ s f 2 is an uncommon but valuable standardized effect size measure that can be used to assess the size of local effects ( Selya et al., 2012 ). When f 2 reaches 0.02 it represents a small effect size, 0.150 represents a medium effect size, and 0.350 represents a high effect size ( Hair et al., 2014 ). The explanatory power of online game addiction on behavioral engagement was 23.6%, and f 2 was 0.309. The explanatory power of online game addiction on emotional engagement was 18.5%, and f 2 was 0.227. The explanatory power of online game addiction on cognitive engagement was 13.7%, and f 2 was 0.159. The explanatory power of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement on reduced academic achievement motivation was 23.9%, and f 2 was 0.314. Figure 2 illustrates the above findings.

4.6. Indirect effects analysis

Scholars are often interested in whether variables mediate the association between predicting and outcome variables. Therefore, mediating variables can partially or entirely explain the association ( Hwang et al., 2019 ). In research fields such as psychology and behavior, where the research situation is often more complex, multiple mediating variables are often required to clearly explain the effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables ( MacKinnon, 2012 ). Scientific quantitative research requires tests of confidence interval (CI; Thompson, 2002 ), and the standard value of the test numbers is often determined by 95% CI ( Altman and Bland, 2011 ). CI value not containing 0 indicates the statistical significance of the analysis results ( Nakagawa and Cuthill, 2007 ). According to the statistical results shown in Table 4 , behavioral engagement significantly positively mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation with a path coefficient of 0.230 and 95% CI ranging from 0.150 to 0.300 (excluding 0), p < 0.01; emotional engagement positively mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation with a path coefficient of 0.209, 95% CI ranging from 0.130 to 0.292 (excluding 0), p < 0.01; cognitive engagement positively mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation with a path coefficient of 0.170, 95% CI ranging from 0.100 to 0.250 (excluding 0), p < 0.01, as shown in Table 6 .

4.7. Discussion

4.7.1. analysis of the relationship between online game addiction and learning engagement.

Online game addiction is often negatively associated with students’ learning. For example, the problematic use of short videos was reported as negatively affecting students’ behavioral engagement, while behavioral engagement positively affected students’ emotional and cognitive engagement ( Ye et al., 2023 ). Meral (2019) highlighted that students’ learning attitudes and academic performance had a negative relationship with students’ addiction to online games. Demir and Kutlu (2018) found that online game addiction negatively affects students’ learning motivation. As the level of students’ game addiction increased, the level of their communication skills decreased ( Kanat, 2019 ). Furthermore, Tsai et al. (2020) pointed out a negative correlation between online game addiction and peer relationships as well as students’ learning attitudes. According to the results of the research model validation, it can be observed that: online game addiction negatively affected behavioral engagement, emotional engagement, and cognitive engagement. Therefore, it can be stated that online game addiction had significant and negative effects on all dimensions of learning engagement.

Online game addiction in the present study included aspects of computer game addiction and mobile phone game addiction. The results of the present study are consistent with the findings of Gao et al. (2021) , Choi (2019) , and Qi et al. (2020) , who pointed out that college students’ addiction to cell phones negatively affected their learning engagement.

4.7.2. Analysis of the relationship between learning engagement and reduced academic achievement motivation

For technology education in higher education, students’ intrinsic motivation for academic study predicts their learning engagement ( Dunn and Kennedy, 2019 ). In addition, learning engagement is positively correlated with academic achievement ( Fredricks and McColskey, 2012 ). Based on the research model validation results, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement all negatively affected reduced academic achievement motivation. The findings are consistent with Hu et al.’s (2021) study which pointed out that cognitive engagement in the learning engagement dimension had the most significant effect on students’ academic achievement, and that emotional engagement was also an essential factor influencing students’ academic achievement. Lau et al. (2008) showed that achievement motivation positively predicted cognitive engagement in the learning engagement dimension. Mih et al. (2015) noted that achievement motivation positively predicted behavioral and emotional engagement in the learning engagement dimension. The present study supported the above discussion by confirming the association between learning engagement and reduced academic achievement motivation.

4.7.3. Analysis of the mediating role of learning engagement

According to the indirect effects analysis results of the present study, learning engagement negatively mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation. The findings support Haji Anzehai’s (2020) conclusion that social network addiction negatively correlated with students’ motivation to progress ( Haji Anzehai, 2020 ). It is also consistent with the findings of Chen and Gu (2019) that students addicted to online games generally had lower academic achievement motivation due to a lack of precise academic planning and motivation. Cao et al. (2008) found a significant negative correlation between Internet addiction and students’ achievement motivation. Similarly, Zhang et al. (2018) explored the intrinsic influencing mechanism of students’ Internet addiction on academic achievement decline in their late adolescence by identifying learning engagement as the important mediating variable. Li et al. (2019) proposed that social networking site addiction among college students significantly negatively affected learning engagement and that learning engagement mediated the relationship between social network addiction and students’ academic achievement. The present study findings also support the discussion above.

5. Conclusion and suggestions

5.1. conclusion.

Currently, the problem of online game addiction among college students is increasing. The relationship between online game addiction, learning engagement, and reduced academic achievement motivation still needs to be explored. The present study explored the relationships between the three aforementioned variables by performing SEM. The results of the study indicated that: (1) online game addiction negatively affected behavioral engagement; (2) online game addiction negatively affected emotional engagement; (3) online game addiction negatively affected cognitive engagement; (4) behavioral engagement negatively affected reduced academic achievement motivation; (5) emotional engagement negatively affected reduced academic achievement motivation; (6) cognitive behavioral engagement negatively affected reduced academic achievement motivation; (7) learning engagement mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation.

According to the research results, when college students are addicted to online games, their learning engagement can be affected, which may decrease their behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement; their academic achievement motivation may be further reduced and affect their academic success or even prevent them from completing their studies. The mediating role of learning engagement between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation indicates that reduced academic achievement motivation influenced by online game addiction could be prevented or weakened by enhancing learning engagement.

5.2. Suggestions

Universities and families play a crucial role in preventing online game addiction among college students. One of the main reasons college students play online games may be that they lack an understanding of other leisure methods and can only relieve their psychological pressure through online games ( Fan and Gai, 2022 ). Therefore, universities should enrich college students’ after-school leisure life and help them cultivate healthy hobbies and interests. Besides, a harmonious parent–child relationship positively affects children’s learning engagement ( Shao and Kang, 2022 ). Parents’ stricter demands may aggravate children’s game addiction ( Baturay and Toker, 2019 ). Therefore, parents should assume a proper perspective on the rationality of gaming and adopt the right approach to guide their children.

One key factor influencing the quality of higher education is students’ learning engagement. The integration of educational information technology has disrupted traditional teaching methods. This trend has accelerated in the context of COVID-19. College students’ growth mindset can impact their learning engagement through the role of the perceived COVID-19 event strength and perceived stress ( Zhao et al., 2021 ). Moreover, students’ self-regulated learning and social presence positively affect their learning engagement in online contexts ( Miao and Ma, 2022 ). Students’ liking of the teacher positively affects their learning engagement ( Lu et al., 2022 ). Their perceived teacher support also positively affects their learning engagement ( An et al., 2022 ). Hence, educators should focus on teacher support and care in the teaching and learning process.

Students’ motivation for academic achievement can often be influenced by active interventions. Cheng et al. (2022) noted that the cumulative process of students gaining successful experiences contributed to an increased sense of self-efficacy, motivating them to learn. Zhou (2009) illustrated that cooperative learning motivated students’ academic achievement. In addition, Hong J. C. et al. (2021) showed that poor parent–child relationships (such as the behavior of “mama’ s boy” in adults) had a negative impact on students’ academic achievement motivation, and they concluded that cell phone addiction was more pronounced among students with low academic achievement motivation. Hence, enhancing students’ academic achievement motivation also requires family support.

5.3. Research limitations and suggestions for future research

Most of the past studies on the impact of online game addiction on academics have used quantitative research as the research method. The qualitative research approach regarding students’ online game addiction should not be neglected. By collecting objective factual materials in the form of qualitative research such as interviews a greater understanding of students’ actual views on games and the psychological factors of addiction can be achieved. Therefore, future studies could introduce more qualitative research to study online game addiction.

To pay attention to the problem of students’ online game addiction, universities and families should not wait until they become addicted and try to remedy it, but should start to prevent it before it gets to that stage. In terms of developing students’ personal psychological qualities, students’ sensation-seeking and loneliness can significantly affect their tendency to become addicted to online games ( Batmaz and Çelik, 2021 ). Adolescents’ pain intolerance problems can also contribute to Internet overuse ( Gu, 2022 ). Emotion-regulation methods affect the emotional experience and play a vital role in Internet addiction ( Liang et al., 2021 ). In this regard, it is necessary to pay attention to students’ mental health status and to guide them to establish correct values and pursue goals through psychological guidance and other means.

In addition to individual factors, different parenting can considerably impact adolescents. Adolescents who tend to experience more developmental assets are less likely to develop IGD ( Xiang et al., 2022a ), and external resources can facilitate the development of internal resources, discouraging adolescents from engaging in IGD ( Xiang et al., 2022b ). Relevant research indicates that the most critical factor in adolescents’ game addiction tendency comes from society or their parents rather than being the adolescents’ fault ( Choi et al., 2018 ). Adolescents who tend to be addicted to online games may have discordant parent–child relationships ( Eliseeva and Krieger, 2021 ). Better father-child and mother–child relationships predict lower initial levels of Internet addiction in adolescents ( Shek et al., 2019 ). Family-based approaches such as improved parent–child relationships and increased communication and understanding among family members can be a direction for adolescent Internet addiction prevention ( Yu and Shek, 2013 ).

At the school level, a close teacher-student relationship is one of the main factors influencing students’ psychological state. Students’ participation in and control over the teaching and learning process as well as their closeness to teachers can increase their satisfaction and thus enhance their learning-related well-being ( Yang J. et al., 2021 ). More school resources can lead to higher adolescent self-control, attenuating students’ online gaming disorders ( Xiang et al., 2022c ).

Data availability statement

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.

Ethics statement

Ethical review and approval was not required for the study on human participants in accordance with the local legislation and institutional requirements. Written informed consent for participation was not required for this study in accordance with the national legislation and the institutional requirements. Written informed consent was not obtained from the individual(s) for the publication of any potentially identifiable images or data included in this article.

Author contributions

R-QS, and J-HY: concept and design and drafting of the manuscript. R-QS, and J-HY: acquisition of data and statistical analysis. G-FS, and J-HY: critical revision of the manuscript. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

This work was supported by Beijing Normal University First-Class Discipline Cultivation Project for Educational Science (Grant number: YLXKPY-XSDW202211). The Project Name is “Research on Theoretical Innovation and Institutional System of Promoting the Modernization of Vocational Education with Modern Chinese Characteristics”.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Keywords: college students, online game addiction, learning engagement, reduced academic achievement motivation, online games

Citation: Sun R-Q, Sun G-F and Ye J-H (2023) The effects of online game addiction on reduced academic achievement motivation among Chinese college students: the mediating role of learning engagement. Front. Psychol . 14:1185353. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1185353

Received: 13 March 2023; Accepted: 08 June 2023; Published: 13 July 2023.

Reviewed by:

Copyright © 2023 Sun, Sun and Ye. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Jian-Hong Ye, [email protected]

† These authors have contributed equally to this work and share first authorship

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How to use Copilot Pro to write, edit, and analyze your Word documents

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Microsoft's Copilot Pro AI offers a few benefits for $20 per month. But the most helpful one is the AI-powered integration with the different Microsoft 365 apps. For those of you who use Microsoft Word, for instance, Copilot Pro can help you write and revise your text, provide summaries of your documents, and answer questions about any document.

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Second, you'll need the subscription to Copilot Pro if you don't already have one. To sign up, head to the Copilot Pro website . Click the Get Copilot Pro button. Confirm the subscription and the payment. The next time you use Copilot on the website, in Windows, or with the mobile apps, the Pro version will be in effect.

How to use Copilot Pro in Word

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Also: Microsoft Copilot Pro vs. OpenAI's ChatGPT Plus: Which is worth your $20 a month?

A small "Draft with Copilot" window appears on the screen. If you don't see it, click the tiny "Draft with Copilot icon in the left margin."

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At the text field in the window, type a description of the text you need and click the "Generate" button.

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Copilot generates and displays its response. After reading the response, you're presented with a few different options.

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If you'd prefer to throw out the entire draft and start from scratch, click the trash can icon.

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Keep, regenerate, or remove the draft.

5. Alter the draft

Alternatively, you can try to modify the draft by typing a specific request in the text field, such as "Make it more formal," "Make it shorter," or "Make it more casual."

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Alter the draft.

6. Review the different versions

If you opt to regenerate the draft, you can switch between the different versions by clicking the left or right arrow next to the number. You can then choose to keep the draft you prefer.

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7. Revise existing text

Copilot will also help you fine-tune existing text. Select the text you want to revise. Click the Copilot icon in the left margin and select "Rewrite with Copilot."

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Revise existing text.

8. Review the different versions

Copilot creates a few different versions of the text. Click the arrow keys to view each version.

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Review the different versions.

9. Replace or Insert

If you find one you like, click "Replace" to replace the text you selected. 

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Click "Insert below" to insert the new draft below the existing words so you can compare the two.

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Replace or Insert.

10. Adjust the tone

Click "Regenerate" to ask Copilot to try again. Click the "Adjust Tone" button and select a different tone to generate another draft.

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Adjust the tone.

11. Turn text into a table

Sometimes you have text that would look and work better as a table. Copilot can help. Select the text you wish to turn into a table. Click the Copilot icon and select "Visualize as a Table."

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Turn text into a table.

12. Respond to the table

In response, click "Keep it" to retain the table. Click "Regenerate" to try again. Click the trash can icon to delete it. Otherwise, type a request in the text field, such as "remove the second row" or "make the last column wider."

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Respond to the table.

13. Summarize a document

Copilot Pro can provide a summary of a document with its key points. To try this, open the document you want to summarize and then click the Copilot icon on the Ribbon. 

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The right sidebar displays several prompts you can use to start your question. Click the one for "Summarize this doc."

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Summarize a document.

14. Review the summary

View the generated summary in the sidebar. If you like it as is, click the "Copy" button to copy the summary and paste it elsewhere.

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Review the summary.

15. Revise the summary

Otherwise, choose one of the suggested questions or ask your own question to revise the summary. For example, you could tell Copilot to make the summary longer, shorter, more formal, or less formal. 

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You could also ask it to expand on one of the points in the summary or provide more details on a certain point. A specific response is then generated based on your request.

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Revise the summary.

16. Ask questions about a document

Next, you can ask specific questions about any of the content in a document. Again, click the Copilot icon to display the sidebar. In the prompt area, type and submit your question. Copilot displays the response in the sidebar. You can then ask follow-up questions as needed.

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Ask questions about a document.

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IMAGES

  1. Research Proposal On Motivation

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  2. 10+ Free Motivation Letter Sample Template with Examples

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  3. Motivation Letter For University Sample Five Questions To Ask At

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  5. 😂 How to write research motivation. Custom Written Leadership and

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  6. Sample & Example of Motivation Letter Template [PDF]

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COMMENTS

  1. How to write the Research Background and Motivation for your Thesis or

    The Research Background and Motivation section of your thesis or dissertation is basically a combination of A) the evolution of theory / thought / responses to a topic and B) your personal reaction / feelings / thoughts on the subject. Tips for writing the Research Background and Motivation Section

  2. Motivation for Research and Publication: Experience as ...

    A quality product will benefit not only the science community but also the community at large. • The writer should fully understand what should be written and should choose assignments that have shorter deadlines, such as modules and paper works, so that the motivation to complete the writing will be greater Shahrom Md Zain et al ...

  3. How to explain things in the motivation section of a mathematical paper

    This is actually really hard and usually takes much more experience than it did to solve the research problem in the first place. So I think its common for e.g. a graduating PhD student to have the technical knowledge to solve the problem but to find it difficult to articulate where the problem lies within a much bigger field of inquiry.

  4. What is the difference between "introduction" and "motivation" sections

    The motivation section explains the importance behind your research. Why should the reader care? Why is your research the most groundbreaking piece of scientific knowledge since sliced bread (or CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing)? Some people do combine the introduction and the motivation, it really depends on the research and the researcher.

  5. PDF Strategies for Essay Writing

    In a short paper—even a research paper—you don't need to provide an exhaustive summary as part of your conclusion. But you do need to make some kind of transition between your final body paragraph and your concluding paragraph. This may come in the form of a few sentences of summary. Or it may come in the form of a sentence that

  6. How to Write a Research Paper

    Writing a research paper requires you to demonstrate a strong knowledge of your topic, engage with a variety of sources, and make an original contribution to the debate. This step-by-step guide takes you through the entire writing process, from understanding your assignment to proofreading your final draft.

  7. How to Write the Rationale for a Research Paper

    You can write your research rationale before, or after, conducting the study. In the first case, when you might have a new research idea, and you're applying for funding to implement it. In the second case, you have completed the study and are writing a research paper for publication. Looking back, you explain why you did the study in question ...

  8. PDF Motivation Research in Writing: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations

    Finally, we offer suggestions for future research in writing motivation. Gary A. Troia, Rebecca K. Shankland, Kimberly A. Wolbers (2012) "Motivation Research in Writing: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations" Reading & Writing Quarterly 28:1 pp 5-28 Version of record available @ (DOI: 10.1080/10573569.2012.632729)

  9. How to Write a Research Paper Introduction

    Generally speaking, a good research paper introduction includes these parts: 1 Thesis statement. 2 Background context. 3 Niche (research gap) 4 Relevance (how the paper fills that gap) 5 Rationale and motivation. First, a thesis statement is a single sentence that summarizes the main topic of your paper.

  10. Tips for Writing Your Motivational Statement and Essays

    Option 1: Challenge—Describe briefly the biggest challenge you have ever faced. How did you tackle it and what did you learn? (max 300 words) Tip: In essay one, you may write about a personal, professional, or academic challenge when answering this question.

  11. 8 Most Effective Ways to Increase Motivation for Thesis Writing

    Here are eight essential strategies to help you find and maintain your motivation to write your thesis throughout the thesis writing process. Know why you lack motivation It's important to understand whether you're just avoiding writing (procrastination) or if you genuinely don't feel interested in it (lack of motivation).

  12. Writing a Research Paper Introduction

    Step 1: Introduce your topic. Step 2: Describe the background. Step 3: Establish your research problem. Step 4: Specify your objective (s) Step 5: Map out your paper. Research paper introduction examples. Frequently asked questions about the research paper introduction.

  13. What is your motivation for writing a research paper?

    What is your motivation for writing a research paper? In all honesty, what motivates you as an individual to write research paper and to do research in general? Research Paper...

  14. How to Create a Structured Research Paper Outline

    How to write a research paper outline. Follow these steps to start your research paper outline: Decide on the subject of the paper. Write down all the ideas you want to include or discuss. Organize related ideas into sub-groups.

  15. (PDF) Motivation Research

    Motivation research is a term used to refer to a selection of qualitative research methods that were designed to probe consumers' minds in order to discover the subconscious or latent reasons...

  16. Teaching and Researching Motivation

    The third edition of Teaching and Researching Motivation offers newly-updated and extended coverage of motivation research and pedagogical practice. As in the 2001 and 2011 editions, the text provides comprehensive insights into motivation research and teaching. However, the current edition, as in the authors' words, is "not so much a revised version as a newly written book that has the same ...

  17. How to write a research paper

    31 Mar 2023 1:10 PM ET By Elisabeth Pain SeventyFour/Shutterstock Condensing months or years of research into a few pages can be a mighty exercise even for experienced writers. Authors need to find the sweet spot between convincingly addressing their scientific questions and presenting their results in such detail the key message is lost.

  18. (PDF) Motivation Research in Writing: Theoretical and Empirical

    This article reviews research on motivation in the academic domain of writing situated within a social cognitive perspective. First we summarize major findings related to 4 theorized components of ...

  19. How to Write a Motivation Research Paper Like a Pro

    $6 Proceed to order 11 Sep 2019 Motivation is of the hottest topics within companies, conferences, and other communities. It is regarded as the strongest force helping people to move forward and take actions. If a person doesn't have motivation and inspiration to do something, their life loses any sense and seems bleak.

  20. Build Motivation to Write That Paper

    Follow these simple steps to cultivate motivation and get that paper written: FIND THE RIGHT WRITING SPOT In another blog article, we mentioned a way to improve your study habits includes finding the right location. To be ready to write, your environment should cater to your need to focus.

  21. 15 Ways to Motivate Yourself to Write

    Writing 15 Ways to Motivate Yourself to Write Written by MasterClass Last updated: Aug 26, 2021 • 5 min read Do you know that feeling you get when you sit down to write but you just can't summon the will to start typing? You're not alone.

  22. Writing Motivation in School: a Systematic Review of Empirical Research

    Motivation is a catalyst of writing performance in school. In this article, we report a systematic review of empirical studies on writing motivation conducted in school settings, published between 2000 and 2018 in peer-reviewed journals. We aimed to (1) examine how motivational constructs have been defined in writing research; (2) analyze group differences in writing motivation; (3) unveil ...

  23. How to Write a Research Proposal

    Writing a research proposal can be quite challenging, but a good starting point could be to look at some examples. We've included a few for you below. Example research proposal #1: "A Conceptual Framework for Scheduling Constraint Management" Example research proposal #2: "Medical Students as Mediators of Change in Tobacco Use" Title page

  24. Researching the White Paper

    Researching the White Paper: The process of researching and composing a white paper shares some similarities with the kind of research and writing one does for a high school or college research paper. What's important for writers of white papers to grasp, however, is how much this genre differs from a research paper.

  25. Frontiers

    Related research also suggests that motivation is one variable that significantly predicts learning engagement (Xiong et al., 2015). Therefore, it is worthwhile to investigate the internal influence mechanism of college students' online game addiction on their reduced academic achievement motivation and the role of learning engagement, which ...

  26. How to use Copilot Pro to write, edit, and analyze your Word ...

    2. Submit your request. At the text field in the window, type a description of the text you need and click the "Generate" button. Submit your request. Screenshot by Lance Whitney/ZDNET. 3. Review ...

  27. Income taxes and the motivation to work: A review

    Research on the impact that income taxes have on the motivation to work has a rich history using a variety of methodologies. In this paper, we attempt to connect the various streams of research ...