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Health and safety assignment

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Helen Bridgewater Develop Health and safety and risk management policies, procedures and practices in Health and Social Care or children and young people settings. Learning Outcome 1 1. Explain the legislative framework for health, safety and risk management in work setting. Health and Safety at work act (HSW Act) The Act was introduced in 1974 and is the main piece of the health and safety legislation in Great Britain. Before this Act was introduced, health and safety with regards to workplaces tended to be industry-specific, and was largely reactive instead of proactive, meaning that new legislation was only introduced after a serious accident had taken place. Prior to the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 being introduced, existing health and safety legislation concentrated more on ensuring that the equipment being used was safe, rather than raising the awareness of employees to work safely and take responsibility for occupational health and safety. Although the Act is dated 1974, it is still current. The health and safety at Work Act 1974 is an enabling Act, allowing further laws (regulations) to be made without the need to pass another Act. Some regulations apply across all industries, for example Manual Handling, but others cover hazards which are unique to certain industries such as construction or mining. Inspectors work either for the health and Safety Executive (HSE) or the Local Authority, and have a number of rights, including the right to: • Enter premises at any reasonable time • Examine and investigate the premises, as well as require it to be left undisturbed and as it is. • Take samples and photographs, and remove equipment or substances if deemed necessary • Require the production of relevant documentation • Seize, destroy or render harmless any article or hazardous substance if deemed necessary • Issue an enforcement notice and initiate a prosecution. As well as the rights listed above the inspectors have a number of actions available to them once they have concluded their findings. These range from taking no action, to giving verbal or written advice, to serving a prohibition notice or even commencing prosecution proceedings if there is sufficient evidence and it is considered to be in the public interest. Tragic events can happen when the legal aspects of care are either ignored or treated with disdain. Failure to uphold the law can lead to devastating consequences not only to the clients but to staff, visitors and even the care establishment as a whole. There are many laws in place here are a few: Health and Safety (first aid) regulations 1981: The purpose is to ensure that everyone has access to immediate first aid care in the workplace. It is my responsibility to ensure that designated first aiders have sufficient training and that it is maintained. All first aid boxes must be checked and supply resources. Personal protective Equipment at Work Regulations (1992) PPE: The purpose is to minimise cross infection in the workplace. It is my responsibility to ensure that staff are aware of infection control procedures and are trained in dealing with potential cross infection and to supply work wear and PPE. Provision and use of Work Equipment 1998 (PUWER): the purpose is to minimise the risks due to the use of equipment. It is my responsibility to ensure that all staff are trained in equipment they use and that it is maintained and safe to use.

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Unit 3 Health and Safety at HSC Workplace Sample Assignment

Health and Safety at HSC Workplace


In today’s scenario the employers have understood their responsibilities and duties towards the health and safety of their employees and customer at their workplace. This has made them to create effective health and safety policies. This connects the employees with the employers with a sense of attachment and loyalty. In this assignment we will discuss about the health and safety policies, their implementation and effect on the employees about this healthy and safe working environment which results in the better working styles and outcomes for the organisation.

At any workplace, the employer has a responsibility of taking health and social care of the employees along with the visitors at their premises like the suppliers and the customers. Therefore, in 1974 a Health and Safety act was implemented in United Kingdom which is a primary piece of legislation related to the work related health and safety of the employees. (niDirect Government Services, n.d.)

1.1 Update of the heath and policy manual at the workplace

Here it is required to update the health and safety manual of our workplace. By keeping the legislation ion mind, the manual for the work place is constructed. Employer’s Duties: Under Section 8, the employer at the workplace has a certain duties towards the safety of health of the employee. The organisation will take care of:

  • Provision of the safe workplace with the usage of safe plant and equipment.
  • Provision of the proper training to the employees regarding the health and safety.
  • Prevention of any improper behaviour which can put the safety and welfare of the employees at risk.
  • Provision of proper and protective clothes and equipment at work.
  • Appointment of a competent person as a safety officer of the organisation.

Employee’s Duties: There are certain duties which are set out under section 13 for employees and the organisation will take care of:

  • To take care of their health and care while working in the workplace.
  • Should not consume drugs or alcohol at the workplace.
  • They should not involve in the improper behaviour that can endanger others and themselves.
  • If they see any defect in the equipment they use, they need to directly report about it.
  • If the employer asked them to undergo under any medication or assessment, they need to understand that.

Risk assessment and safety statement: Under the safety and welfare Act 2005, the employer of the organisation needs to carry out a risk assessment which will include all the hazards present in the workplace, identify the risk arising from those hazards and plan the steps to deal with those hazards. They need to make the statement as well that contains the details of the people responsible for the safety issues at the workplace. The employees should be given these statements and regular reviews should be done by the employer. Protective equipment and measures: The employer needs to tell the about all the risks that occur while wearing or working on the equipment in the workplace. The employer needs todeliver proper training to the employees before using any risky equipment and will provide all safety wears like clothing, headgear, footwear, gloves eyewear if necessary. In the same time the employee needs to take care of their own safety while using the risky equipment. Reporting accidents: All the accidents at the work place should be reported to the employer and the employer will take charge and responsibility that the accident is not repeated. If the employee is missing for three consecutive days, the employer should consider him as missing and report for him. Health and safety leave: Proper provision of maternity leave for the pregnant employees should be carried out in a separate risk assessment. If there are certain risks with the pregnancy, the employee should move out or removed. If both the cases are not possible, the employee should be given special leave till maternity. Health and cleanliness: Proper cleanliness, temperature, ventilation should be provided so that the employees are physically fit to perform at the work place. Health and safety and young people: The employees under 18 years should be considered in a different risk assessment and should be carried out before the employment of the young people and if the risk can arise due to the lack of experience, the young people should not be employed. Bullying: If there is any report regarding the bullying among the employees, the employer should establish proper procedures for dealing with such reports because ignoring such reports can damage the employee. Harassment: Considering the employment equity act 1998-2011, the employer should be obliged to play compensation if there is any incident of harassing the employee on the basis of civil status, gender, age, family status, community, religion or disability. Violence at the workplace: Proper safeguards should be applied in the workplace for elimination of any incident regarding violence at the workplace. The possibility of the violence should be considered in the risk assessment and handed over to the employees. Victimisation: The employee should not be victimised for utilising his own rights such as making complaints under safety and health legislation. (Citizens Information, n.d.)

1.2 The responsibilities for management of health and safety in relation to organisational structures

The management id completely responsible for the monitor and ensure that all the employees are trained for health and safety issues that can take place while working on the workplace this includes the proper cleanliness and placement of the risky equipment at their safe and designated place. Monogram of health and safety issues: Top management: The top management is responsible for providing all the safety trainings to the employees and purchasing all the equipment and planning the safety policies at the work place. Mid- Level Management: They take care that all the employees are aware of the safety policies and have direct contacts with them for monitoring them closely. Employees: They follow all the security policies and report to the managers if there is any risk of hazards or faulty equipment in the workplace. Safety Consultants: They are hired by the organisation for training the employees installing the equipment that can create hazards and informing the top management regarding the laws and regulations of health and safety at the workplace. (Dozier, 2013) This report is a clear picture of the health and safety measures taken at our organisation and the responsibilities of all the level of managers for taking care that it is implemented properly in the organisation.

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Business Environment Assignment - British Airways

Business Environment Assignment - British Airways

Browse Course Material

Course info.

  • Prof. Nancy Leveson


  • Aeronautics and Astronautics
  • Institute for Data, Systems, and Society

As Taught In

  • Operations Management
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Systems Engineering

Learning Resource Types

System safety, assignments and class project.

Assignment 1 : Citichem video

Watch the Citichem video Acceptable Risks . Directed by Rick Wallace. Color, 92 min. 1986 and identify the factors that contributed to the accident. Do you think there a “root cause”?

Assignment 2 : Answer the “ How Safe is Safe Enough? ”

  • Chapter 1: Which of these factors are true for your field or industry? Are any of them not true?
  • Section 2.1: Think of an example (not in the book) of a system that is reliable but not safe, safe but not reliable, conflicting?
  • Section 2.3: Chernobyl had a calculated PRA of 10 -9 per year (or a mean time between “failure” of 10,000 years) so what do you think went wrong in the analysis? Or did it? (There is a description of what happened at Chernobyl in Safeware Appendix D, but you do not have to read it to answer the question).
  • Section 2.5: Consider the hardware definition of failure. Does it make sense to talk about a failure of a pure abstraction like software? In what way could it make sense? In what ways is it different?
  • Section 2.7: Why do you think it is so hard for people to let go of the concept of blame?
  • Are there any other assumptions of the traditional approaches to safety that you think are no longer always true or additional goals for a new approach to safety?
  • What is an example of another emergent system property besides safety? Why is it emergent?
  • Have you ever worked on a safety-critical system project? If so, how was safety handled?

Assignment 4 : Accident report

  • Find at least 2 instances of hindsight bias in the SBS Tank 731 overflow accident report (PDF) .
  • Summarize an accident report (from the list provided below) and answer questions on: What was cause? Is there a chain of events described? Do you see any hindsight bias? Who or what was blamed? Also, summarize the report it in a 5–10 minute presentation. Some of the reports are quite long. For this assignment you should read at least the introduction and conclusions of the report. Include in your presentation the main events, the causes identified in the report, and their recommendations. Did you find any hindsight bias in the report? If you can find a short (under 2 minute) video online about your accident, feel free to include a link to it in your presentation. We’ll download any videos to my computer before class. You will do the CAST assignment on this accident.

List of Accidents

  • Air France 447
  • Anacortes Tesoro Refinery
  • Texas City: BP Refinery explosion [West Texas explosion would be interesting also but I don’t know if there is enough information available]
  • Chevron Richmond report (CSB)
  • Gol 1907 and Embraer collision (interesting because investigated by both Brazil and NTSB and they reached different conclusions. What would CAST show? I have access to people in Brazil to question about this (both in Brazilian ATC and Embraer)
  • Cali Columbia American Airlines crash (especially interesting human factors information provided)
  • Deepwater Horizon (Presidental Oil Spill Commission report is very well done and lots of information available about this accident)
  • Woodley Park DC Metro
  • Mars Polar Lander
  • Minneapolis highway bridge collapse
  • Hudson river midair collision between a helicopter and small plane
  • 2009 Schiphol airport (Amsterdam), Turkish Airlines B737 [Sidney Dekker wrote a human factors report on this accident that is up on the class website]
  • Shell Moerdijk accident

You can also come up with one of your own, but please get my permission first to make sure it is a good accident to analyze (e.g., that enough public information available, etc.). Note that information in the press, before an official investigation is done, is almost always completely wrong.

CAST Analysis Assignment (can be done in groups of up to 2 people)

Create a CAST analysis for your accident. Compare your results with the results in the official report. Feel free to use information from online resources or news articles to supplement the information in the report if you want. Be sure to cite any resources you use. Some hints:

  • Make sure your hazard describes the overall state of the system, and not specific behavior of an individual component like software, engines, pilots, etc.
  • Your control structure should include the responsibilities for each controller, the possible control actions, and feedback arrows. Label each arrow with the particular actions / information they represent. Add controllers if necessary to capture any additional causes you found.
  • Safety responsibilities of physical system (what must it do)
  • Physical controls (what design features were meant to fulfill the safety responsibilities)
  • Failures and inadequate controls (what went wrong)
  • Contextual factors (why did those things go wrong)
  • Safety-related responsibilities (what goals they should achieve)
  • Unsafe Decisions and Control Actions (what they did that was unsafe)
  • Process model flaws (what did they believe about the system that explains their actions)
  • Context (what other factors pressures, incentives, history, etc.—explain their actions)

Project Instructions : Do a hazard analysis of a real system.

  • Write a description of the system, what are the goals, have there been accidents in the past with it? (if it is not new). What are the technical system safety requirements? [ESW] 7.3 and the overall management or organizational requirements [ESW] 7.4
  • Define the accidents and hazards of importance to the stakeholders. Select one or two important ones to analyze.
  • Describe the hierarchical safety control structure that either exists or needs to be created.
  • Perform a Step 1 analysis for at least one human (operator) and one automated (software) part of your control structure. Rewrite the results as requirements.
  • Perform a Step 2 analysis for the unsafe control actions you identified in Step 4. Generate recommendations for human factors design and technical design from the results.
  • What information should be passed to operations that you have created in your analysis? Create a plan for operators to use that information.
  • What recommendations do you have for the overall safety control structure for the organization that will use this system?
  • Is there an existing hazard analysis for this system? If so, compare the results with what you got using STPA. If not, did you find hazard causes that involved non-failure of components?

MIT Open Learning

safety assignment

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  • Occupational Health and Safety Assignment Example Ireland

Occupational Health and Safety Assignment Example

Most of the top colleges and universities in Ireland, like Pitman Training Centre (Kerry), IBEC training, CMI institute Ireland, and University college cork , offer the course in health & safety for the students. The professors of these colleges give essay writing assignments on the topic of Occupational Health & Safety. On seeing the demand of students on this matter, the professional essay writers have written an example assignment for the students of Cork. They also have given a health and safety statement in the Introduction section of the assignment.

Occupational Health and Safety Assignment Example

Topic: Occupational health And safety assignment example

Subject: Health and Assignment 1

Occupational Health And safety assignment Introduction:

Health and safety in the workplace are some of the main factors to think about. As if there are many reasons that can exacerbate the health-related problem, there may be chances of occurring severe damage to it. Within modern industries, there are many dangers that people can identify as health-related issues. Heavy chemicals, pressure for strict deadlines, hiring unskilled workers, and other issues are some examples of these threats.

I have discussed all such problems in this essay with a clear explanation. I have also suggested some means through which employees can protect themselves from such dangers. As it is obvious that a healthy environment gives a sound mind, so to work effectively, the workplace should be safe from all the possible threats.

Body Part for Health and safety assignment example

Health and safety are primarily concerned with providing workers with a safe and healthy workplace. In 1950, the International Labor Organization declared a definition of health and safety- “Occupational wellness should aim at promoting and sustaining the highest level of workers’ physical, mental and social well-being in all professions.

Working conditions cause prevention among the employees for the departure from health. It protects the workers from risks resulting from adverse health factors in their work. The worker’s position and maintenance in an occupational environment that suits to his physiological and psychological ability.”

Get Finely Written Occupational Health & Safety Essay In Your Budget!

Good health and Safety will result in good business. It has become a pressing issue these days, which requires immediate focus. Generally, some organizations fail to understand this importance. Workplace health and safety should also protect colleagues, employers, family members, vendors, neighboring communities, consumers, and other public members who have a link with the workplace environment.

To achieve it, organizations need to enhance activities among several focus areas like occupational medicine, public health , industrial hygiene, eating habits of employees, chemistry, physics of health, and safety engineering.

The leading issues in organizations suffering from the excess cost that they have to bear are when the employees face accidents, or they fall ill. The suffered employee has to face medical expenses and absences. Therefore, more attention is paid to implementing the importance of good health and safety programs.

A safe working climate for low-class workers is also a reasonable requirement. From the worker digging a tunnel to the executive assistant to the site manager, all anticipate going home every night without being injured on the job.

Accidents and getting any disease can be avoided in many cases if the organization and its employees take appropriate measures. For some organizations, it comes at first place in the list of their consideration, and they don’t tolerate even minor injuries. Occupational health and safety also influence the job bond and outsourcing, and it is necessary to ensure that the laws in force have complied with them.

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There are many issues affecting employees ‘ health and safety, for example, eating junk food from the canteen, exposure to different temperature environments, lack of experience with launched machinery, etc.

There are mainly three Es that prevail with occupational health & safety:

  • Engineering- Includes knowledge of safety issues when building equipment.
  • Education- Train staff on safety procedures and how to do their job safely
  • Enforcement- It is crucial to enforce firm rules and policies.

All businesses, without exception, face health and safety issues that could adversely affect their employees and the workplace. Employers should understand the risks that prevail at their workplace and, therefore, must take all the necessary precautions.

Employers have to face more risk when they believe protection is no longer a priority or when they redirect all the assets that have been made available to the department of health and safety elsewhere. The essential elements in reducing workplace injuries and illness are the detections, prevention, and mitigation of threats.


To make occupational health and safety possible, the organization should adopt an approach that combines ergonomic job design, medical supervision, worker training and involvement, a corporate organization that promotes safety, and a competent supervisor. The company should place safety before carrying out any production.

It should organize some programs with which the employees can learn the value of hygiene and healthy eating habits in their careers. We have seen that the noose is tightening these days in the country and repeated inadequate safety and hygiene habits are now being treated in the same way as the drink-driving with hefty fines.

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Our professional essay writers have written a number of health and safety reflective essays for the students of Leinster. If you need help in any phase of your work like problem statement for occupational health and safety, health and safety essay conclusion, or its measures in an organization, etc. In that case, you can release your worry by availing of our outstanding health & safety assignment help from the experts.

Through our food safety assignment writing service, Dublin students can get various healthy eating habits that you can use in your essay on Occupational health and safety to make it more effective. You can avail of our excellent services at reasonable prices.

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Australian Volunteers for International Development

Safety and security on assignment.

Keep safe while on an in-country assignment

We recognise the importance of personal safety security in all assignment locations and have implemented a number of strategies to assist you in minimising your risk. However, your safety is also your responsibility.

In-country program staff support volunteers on an in-country assignment, particularly regarding their safety and security. Understanding risks and planning for safe and secure accommodation and workplaces are important aspects of the local orientation process.

All approved program participants have access to the program’s 24/7 emergency assistance provider, International SOS as well as the program's psycho-social support provider, Response Psychological services. Prior to departure, you will be provided with details of how to contact International SOS and Response Psychological services at any time during your assignment.

In case of an emergency, the program reserves the right to evacuate Australian volunteers. Decisions about the evacuation of Australian volunteers in the event of war, unpredictable and violent political situations, pandemics, or natural disaster will be coordinated by the program with the Australian or other diplomatic missions in the host country.

To read more about safety and security while on assignment, please review the Safety and Security section of the Australian Volunteers Guidebook .

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Sample Health & Safety Undergraduate Assignment

Here is a sample that showcases why we are one of the world’s leading academic writing firms. This assignment was created by one of our expert academic writers and demonstrated the highest academic quality. Place your order today to achieve academic greatness.

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Serious Accidents on Fall of the Person Working at Height in Renovation Work Result from Workers’ Failing to Use Fall Arresting Systems Provided by the Employers


The construction industry has experienced tremendous growth over the last decades, which has led to increased company profits, growth in product demand, and financial accessibility in Britain and the rest of the world. The building and construction enterprise significantly contributes to the economy of a country. However, the industry has been labeled one of the most hazardous industries globally (Yu et al., 2003).

Construction projects are considered hazardous due to their working sites’ complex nature and labor use – since most of the construction activities are labor-intensive. The projects are also short-term and transitory since the construction projects’ personnel are usually engaged temporarily. A considerable proportion of this workforce is multilingual.

Thus, construction workers are highly exposed to occupational accidents, deaths, and injuries that may lead to permanent disabilities because they spend most of their time at construction sites. Accidents that occur in the construction sites include falling, tripping, and slipping. However, studies indicate that falls from heights (FFH) are the most common construction accidents than other types of accidents such as electric shocks, hits by falling objects, and vehicle collisions (Marr & Thau 2014; NSW Business Chamber 2012).

According to van der Molen & Frings-Dresen (2014), falls are construction accidents that cause serious injuries of 62% and fatalities of 36%. This indicates that falls from heights generate more than one-third of construction injuries and are the primary cause of multiple injuries and deaths encountered on the building site.

For instance, in 2013, a fall from heights contributed to more than 40% of Britain’s occupational injuries and 37% in Hong Kong. Various studies have been conducted to ascertain the factors that cause falls in construction sites; however, the multidimensional relationship of factors has received little attention from scholars.

Extensive literature review on the subject has focused mainly on limited interventions such as research on workers’ behavior. At Simultaneously construction sites, factor influencing falls and prevention measures and solutions to falls Construction fatalities is a topic that has attracted several researchers’ attention. For example, (NSW Business Chamber 2012) conducted a study that focused on factors that lead to falls in construction sites.

Marr & Thau (2014) have gone a step further to study the significance of postural stability metrics in development. However, past studies have failed to address major factors that lead to falling from heights and develop recommendations or solutions that can mitigate fall incidents in construction sites. The present overview has covered several causes of falls from heights, including a justification for legislation associated with FFH and safety measures designed to prevent FFH.

Factors that Contribute to People Falling from Heights during Renovation Work

FFH injuries occur mostly at the construction site when workers execute dangerous tasks. The tasks’ riskiness varies, although scaffolding and roofing are reported to be the most hazardous jobs that lead to FFH. Roofing workers are predisposed to fall-related accidents due to brittle roofing materials and pressure from large tools and equipment used. In other cases, task complexity and diversion of workers’ attention while handling tasks at significant heights can lead to FFH.

According to Fung et al. (2010), individual variables also play a fundamental role in FFH accidents. This is based on construction workers’ characteristics such as their education level, demographic attributes such as age, gender: physical and human behavior characteristics, and health issues such as chronic ailments. In most cases, workers’ demographic characteristics such as age, weight, and gender are strongly linked with an individual’s health, education, and experience level.

For instance, fatigue can be related to weight since overweight workers tend to get exhausted quickly and, this is one of the leading causes of FFH. To add to this, older workers are prone to FFH more easily than young workers due to their age. Another demographic factor is knowledge level, whereby constructors that lack education skills tend to have limited knowledge in safety measures. This makes them have poor working practice, poor communication, and tolerance skills and capabilities.

Worker’s behavior, such as sloppiness, miscalculation, or brashness, contributes significantly to deaths or permanent disabilities after falling from heights (Li et al., 2015). Such actions are dangerous and, they tend to risk workers’ lives irrespective of their experience and knowledge levels.

Another factor that causes FFH accidents is work depression and sleep deprivation. These factors occur due to workload pressure, fatigue and lack of rest, and intensive physical efforts that lead to burnout. Fatigue is majorly caused by a worker’s physical characteristics and health status and working for long intervals.

Organization variables are also significant factors that are linked with FFH accidents. There are various elements under organizational variables that attribute to FFH accidents in Britain and Hong Kong. Firstly, Hong Kong construction companies are often small-scale businesses. Close to 98% of general construction is done by small firms that employ a capacity of 15 employees or less (Hajibabai et al., 2011). Most construction companies are small in size since they are mostly involved in short-term business contracts.

In this case, small-size construction companies do not invest in proper safety measures such as personal protective equipment, defective safety belts, personal fall arrest systems, and security measures training for their employees, making them have high incidences of FFH accidents. Small-sized construction companies are also risky since they overburden staff due to limited personnel, making workers lose focus on a given assignment.

The second element under an organization’s variables is contractors and sub-contractors. Lack of capability and resources for contractors and sub-contractors significantly contributes to FFH accidents in the construction sites. This is because contractors and sub-contractors dominate most of the work done on the construction sites, and they thus need to put in place safety regulation measures on their day-to-day work.

In this case, FFH can be prevented by using personal protective equipment and personal arrest system tests (Stocks et al., 2011). Due to limited resources, most contractors and sub-contractors operate without safety equipment and protective measures, leading to FFH accidents.

The last component under an organization’s variables is project management. Lack of proper management of tasks generates pressure on workers, leading to a lack of motivation and a negative attitude towards the job and supervisors. This makes employees complete the tasks in a hurry without putting into consideration safety standards. This is likely to cause FFH accidents, especially in the afternoon hours when workers are tired and hungry.

The Rationale Behind the Legislative Framework and Technical Standards on Safe Working at Height at the Workplace

The Health and Safety Laws ought to provide that construction workers should be protected from injury from falling from heights while carrying out renovations. However, for a majority of the workers, the reality is quite different. For instance, more than 3 million workers worldwide die annually from accidents related to falls from heights. Besides, there are more than 100,000 million non-fatal construction-related accidents every year globally. The adverse effects caused by these kinds of accidents on workers and their loved ones are multitudinous.

Economically speaking, Sousa et al. (2014) approximate that over 3 percent of the world’s yearly GDP is used to cater to construction accidents. Employment agencies face high-cost early retirements leading to the loss of experienced workers. Most employers also have to confront absenteeism and expensive insurance premiums as a result of renovation work-related fatalities.

Nevertheless, most accidents can be averted by enacting and enforcing proper safety laws and inspection routines. The regulations on occupational health and security in buildings offer essential tools for employers, employees, and the government to guarantee maximum safety at work (Bowen et al., 2014). There is also a need for having common global laws to ensure the safety of workers worldwide. As has been discussed, FFHs have been liable for numerous fatal and non-fatal injuries annually.

For instance, if an individual falls from a height of more than two meters, there is a high chance that they will be severely injured. Most of the renovation activities entail working at heights. Working from scaffolds, ladders, and wooden platforms are some of the examples. However, there are several other instances where construction staff have to work at varying heights.

A few examples include roofing activities, working on top of tanks, or at the edge of tall buildings. The primary hazards linked to working at great heights include individuals falling onto other people below. These accidents may happen due to a lack of proper edge protection or poorly secured platforms (Sousa et al., 2014). Through strict legislative measures to protect workers and employers, FFH accidents would be significantly reduced.

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safety assignment

The decision with sound reasons for providing different safety measures to be designed and implemented for working at height. The importance of studying FFH accidents is to ameliorate the severity of injuries. Most of the publications and OSHB websites have offered either recommendation on preventive measures for mitigating falling cases.

This section provides reasons and justification for both passive and proactive methods in preventing accidents. Very few publications have provided active strategies to be used in renovation sites. The most important protective way would be to incorporate an on-site precautionary strategy. Educating and training the workers on how to use these measures would help prevent FFH accidents. In contrast, the passive approach’s importance often lies in assessing the fall cases data for plans (Farrow & Reynolds 2012).

The proactive, precautionary principle can be an effective method of curtailing FFH cases. Besides, coming up with little safety workshops for the workers centered on work at height hazards might significantly affect employees” behavior, thus mitigating FFH scenarios. Moreover, reducing the kinds of risk agents and the period of exposure can go a long way to lessen the seriousness of FFH. Furthermore, researching ways improve unsafe structures could also reduce FFH. For example, it is critical to redesign scaffolds to diminish their complex system to be erected and dismantled quickly.

Workers setting up scaffolding systems ought to be competent enough to carry out the kind of scaffolding assignment. They need to have received relevant training on the scaffolding they are using. The law requires that if any scaffolds are 6 feet or more above the ground, the Ministry of Business and Innovation must be notified about its erection and dismantling.

Most of the construction industries are subjected to specific safety guidelines as outlined by OSHB. Such regulations are necessary for enhancing the safety of construction personnel to preclude fall accidents while working. Consistent safety regulations amendments and regular inspections comprise the possible measures to cut down on work-associated FFH.

Before any construction work starts, the contracting agencies must evaluate the site to ascertain whether the work platforms have the critical strength to hold the staff safely. After it is confirmed that the work platforms can support the workers, the employer needs to assess if fall protection measures are required (checking on the HSE and OSHB guidelines) and, if so, supply the employees with fall arresting systems that utilization fall arrest systems when renovations workers work at heights of more than 6 feet (Russ 2010). It also applies to heights of less than 6 feet when activities occur near risky equipment such as machines with exposed drive belts.

Moreover, prevention of FFH can be ensured by utilizing guardrail structures or personal fall arrest equipment. The OSHB refers to such material as universal fall protection agents. Other methods of fall aversions may be incorporated when performing certain construction activities. For instance, when dealing with platforms, a positioning machine would be necessary to use. OSHB requires that employers employ systems that preclude falls of any form.

Construction workers involved in renovating residential houses more than 6 feet tall must use conventional fall arrest equipment unless a special provision in OSHB guidelines offers a different fall aversion strategy (Chapman 2012). However, when the contractor can prove that such an approach is not feasible or might increase the risk hazard, the employer has to design and enforce a site-customized fall protection strategy that complies with the requirements of OSHB.

A personal fall protection/arrest system is the equipment used to safely stop an individual from falling from a height of more than 6 feet. It is made up of connectors, Anchorage, and a harness. Some may have included a deceleration system or lanyard, or both. The Subpart M of OSH prohibits the use of safety belts as components of personal fall arrest equipment.

When organizations use fall arrest equipment to protect workers from FFHs, optimal stopping force on the user-to-user should be limited to 2,000 lbs. When combined with a body harness. The system has to be rigged to prevent the user from falling from a height of more than 6 feet.

The employee should be brought to a complete arrest the maximum deceleration expanse the user drops should be limited to 4 feet (Health and Safety Executive 2010). The arrest equipment should also have enough strength to handle the kinetic energy from the user’s free fall from greater heights three times. Lastly, the device must regularly be inspected for wear and serviced consistently.

Even though other fall protection devices such as fall restraint systems are not frequently discussed in Subpart M, HSE acknowledges the equipment as prevention equipment. If the instrument is utilised correctly, it can protect the user from preventing any FFH. Just like the fall arrest system, this equipment has a safety belt and a supporter. The anchorage system must be robust enough to bar the user from falling from a height greater than 6 feet.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Construction firms have grown over the years with the subsequent increase in revenue. Unfortunately, this has also led to the growth in workers falling from heights while carrying out renovation work. This paper has pointed out several causes of falls from height, including lack of information by individuals on the importance of using personal arrest systems, negligence on contractors, and weather factors.

To reduce the incidences of falls from heights, there is a need to enact proper laws or guarantee workers’ safety, but also, the safety regulations need to be regularly updated. Some of the recommended protection measures include using scaffolds, personal arresting systems, and employee training workshops on using the safety systems.

Hence, from the literature reviewed, it can be concluded that although various or some “Serious accidents on fall of the person in working at height in renovation work have resulted from workers’ failing to use fall arresting systems provided by the employers.” Still, it is not the entire scenario since numerous other factors contribute to such accidents – thus, this statement is not entirely true.

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Bowen, P. et al., 2014. Occupational stress and job demand, control and support factors among construction project consultants. International Journal of Project Management, 32(7), pp.1273–1284.

Chapman, R.J., 2012. Health and Safety Management. In Simple Tools and Techniques for Enterprise Risk Management. pp. 375–390.

Farrow, A. & Reynolds, F., 2012. Health and safety of the older worker. Occupational Medicine, 62(1), pp.4–11.

Fung, I.W.H. et al., 2010. Developing a Risk Assessment Model for construction safety. International Journal of Project Management, 28(6), pp.593–600.

Hajibabai, L., Aziz, Z. & Peña-Mora, F., 2011. Visualising greenhouse gas emissions from construction activities. Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management, 11(3), pp.356–370.

Health and Safety Executive, 2010. Safety Climate Measurement: User Guide and Toolkit, Page 13 of 14

Li, H. et al., 2015. Size and site dependent biological hazard potential of particulate matters collected from different heights in the vicinity of a building construction. Toxicology Letters, 238(3), pp.20–29.

Marr, J.C. & Thau, S., 2014. Falling from great (and not-so-great) heights: How initial status position influences performance after the status loss. Academy of Management Journal, 57(1), pp.223–248.

Van der Molen, H.F. & Frings-Dresen, M.H., 2014. Strategies to reduce safety violations for working from heights in construction companies: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMC public health, 14(1), p.541.

NSW Business Chamber, 2012. Working From Heights and Fall Prevention. Working From Heights and Fall Prevention.

Russ, K., 2010. Risk Assessment in the UK Health and Safety System: Theory and Practice. Safety and Health at Work, 1(1), p.11.

Sousa, V., Almeida, N.M. & Dias, L.A., 2014. Risk-based management of occupational safety and health in the construction industry – Part 1: Background knowledge. Safety Science, 66, pp.75–86.

Stocks, S.J. et al., 2011. Occupation and work-related ill-health in UK construction workers. Occupational Medicine, 61(6), pp.407–415.

Yu, W.K., Chung, K.F. & Chan, S.L., 2003. Column buckling of structural bamboo. Engineering Structures, 25(6), pp.755–768

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