GRASPS Assessment Design and Student Metacognition
The why of grasps assessment design.
GRASPS is a model advocated for by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe to guide teachers in designing authentic performance-based assessment. It’s a form of assessment that engages learners to employ their thinking skills and demonstrate application of essential knowledge, conceptual understanding, and skills acquired throughout a unit of learning.
Wiggins defined authentic assessment as “…Engaging and worthy problems or questions of importance, in which students must use knowledge to fashion performances effectively and creatively. The tasks are either replica of or analogous to the kinds of problems faced by adult citizens and consumers or professionals in the field.” (1993, qtd. by Jon Mueller).
The main takeaway for me is that teachers can use the GRASPS assessment model to:
- engage students through contextualized learning;
- provide simulations of real-world situations or challenges that adults might encounter;
- create opportunities for students to practice transfer of learning;
- foster curiosity and building experiences of students;
- develop project management skills of students .
The WHAT of GRASPS assessment model
To help educators construct authentic assessment, Wiggins and McTighe’s came up with GRASPS model. GRASPS is an acronym for teachers to:
- G oal: establish the challenge, issue or problem to solve;
- R ole: give students a role that they might be taking in a familiar real-life situation;
- A udience: identify the target audience whom students are solving the problem for or creating the product for;
- S ituation: create the scenario or explain the context of the situation;
- P roduct/ P erformance and P urpose: paint a clear picture of the WHAT and WHY of the product creation or the performance;
- S tandards & Criteria for Success: inform students how their work will be assessed by the assumed audience.
Is the GRASPS assessment model misunderstood?
A set of sentence stems has been provided to help teachers construct a performance task and often is introduced in IB workshops. It might be because limited time was allotted for teachers to explore thoroughly the designing principles of using the GRASPS assessment model; therefore, the summative task is sometimes described in the format of a GRASPS performance task but fails to illustrate an actual real-world problem or issue that can inspire students to take authentic or simulated action on.
An example might be:
- G oal: Your goal is to write a short story.
- R ole: You are a middle school student.
- A udience: Your target audience is your teacher, and students and parents in our school community.
- S ituation: You have been asked by your school community to write a short story. (This section is sometimes omitted by teachers as a clear situation is not identified.)
- P roduct/ P erformance and P urpose: write a 800 word short story to entertain others.
- S tandards & Criteria for Success: You will be assessed against criteria B, C and D.
It might look good at first by framing the assessment through GRASPS model, but it’s like déjà vu all over again. It is definitely a step-up when teachers begin to use this model when creating a summative assessment task. However, this is still very much like a traditional assessment task. First of all, the range of the target audience is too big. The way an author writes to entertain young children, teens, or adults is very different. The situation described above is unlikely to happen as it is vague and more details are needed.
Another issue that needs to be addressed is that MYP teachers often inform students that they will be assessed against criteria B, C, and D. But what do criteria B, C and D mean? If we want students to organize, produce text, and use language (MYP Language and Literature criteria BCD), wouldn’t it be more effective for teachers to clearly specify the criteria and engage students in understanding the assessment objectives and strands? We can’t expect students to develop assessment capabilities without explicitly involving them in developing assessment literacy.
Develop student metacognition through GRASPS
In my humble opinion, through the use of the GRASPS assessment model, we can also create opportunities for students to develop their metacognition. In order to create a product or solve a problem effectively and efficiently, students first need to clarify the task, identify their strengths and weakness, set appropriate, challenging goals, analyze the context, chunk the big task into small subtasks within the timeline, seek feedback for improvement, and self-evaluate their work against the success criteria before the final submission. During the process of product creation, teachers provide both explicit and implicit feedback and guide students to monitor their progress. Frequent check-ins are essential. It should never be the case that teachers give students a big project and only find out that students have not addressed a requirement one or two days before the due date.
Refocus GRASPS implementation
Teachers and students can both benefit from the use of the GRASPS assessment model. In this poster design, I refocused the use of the GRASPS assessment model and created essential questions respectively to guide teachers in designing the GRASPS authentic assessment, and students in developing their metacognition through conducting the GRASPS assessment.
As mentioned previously, teachers do not always set up a clear situation for the assessment task. In the MYP framework, when illustrating the situation or creating the scenario for the task, teachers can refer back to the MYP global context exploration predetermined. It is also through the careful design of the scenario or situation, students can be challenged to think about intercultural communication and thus develop international-mindedness.
This poster can be downloaded as a PDF file by simply clicking on the image below.
Mueller, Jon. “What Is Authentic Assessment?” Authentic Assessment Toolbox , jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/whatisit.htm#definitions .
Spencer, John. “Five Structures for Helping Students Learn Project Management.” John Spencer , 20 Aug. 2019, www.spencerauthor.com/project-management/ .
Quigley , Alex, et al. “ Metacognition and Self-Regulated Learning .” Education Endowment Foundation , (Education Endowment Foundation), 27 Apr. 2018, educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/tools/guidance-reports/metacognition-and-self-regulated-learning/.
如果希望閱讀本篇文章的中文版，請拜訪 www.sohu.com/a/403764639_120362876 謝謝IB教學研的翻譯。
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3 thoughts on “grasps assessment design and student metacognition”.
Really interesting !!!
Hi Alison, Thank you for this comprehensive summary of GRASPS, very helpful when reflecting on assessment practices. I noticed that the graphic model posted above is actually linked to your Sanity-Saving Feedback Strategies. Would you please share the correct link with me? I world really appreciate it. Thank you, Karli Lomax, [email protected]
Dear Karli, Thank you for your message. 😀 I just fixed the link. If you click the image, the correct PDF will be downloaded. Best, Alison
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A powerful framework for creating authentic tasks
Select the curriculum relevant for you:
Revisiting GRASPS: a model for project based learning
A while ago we started using GRASPS models to develop our units in MYP and DP design. I wrote about our initial work with this model a few years ago. Since then, we have used it to develop all our units in design and have noticed some meaningful results and benefits for both students and teachers.
What is GRASPS?
GRASPS is a model for demonstrating performance of understanding using authentic assessments. It is one of many performance of understanding models, but is ideally suited to the kind of project-based inquiries we do in design. GRASPS represent a framework for organizing, delivering, and assessing a project-based assessment. The assessment associated with the inquiry is structured around the following expectations and goals.
- Goal : A definition of the problem or goal
- Role : Define the role of the student
- Audience : Identify the target audience
- Situation : This is the context or scenario of the goal
- Product : What is created and why it will be created
- Standards : Rubrics or success criteria
Benefits of GRASPS
Over the years of organizing and implementing our units this way, we have noticed some benefits for students and teachers. Many of these observations are from the perspective of an MYP or DP classroom, but the underlying ideas would benefit any project-based learning experience.
From the teacher’s perspective, we have noticed:
Develop authentic learning experiences: The overall GRASPS structure allows us to identify more authentic learning experiences that drive our units of inquiry.
Clearer presentation of the purpose and content of a project-based inquiry: Because of the way a GRASPS inquiry is framed, communication of the goals, content, and purpose of the inquiry is clearer. During planning it is easier for teachers to plan and develop more authentic units. This has become particularly important for collaboration between teachers, as most our units are planned to be taught by several people.
Clarify the roles, perspectives, and responsibilities of students: The GRASPS model clarifies these aspects of the inquiry. Teachers can choose resources, learning experiences, and content to support the students’ development in these areas. In particular, the Role has become an important part of how we frame units to students (see below)
Communicate the expectations of the inquiry: The structure allows for clear communication of the rubric, assessment expectations, as well as the approaches to learning that students need to utilize to be successful. This has been particularly important in recent times when some of our teaching and learning has shifted to remote
Guide the selection of learning experiences, content and skills necessary for success: Through planning a unit around the GRASPS framework, teachers can think critically and creatively about the type of learning experiences that are needed to support the inquiry. We have started to look more broadly at the skills that re needed, with a particular focus on the Approaches to Learning (ATLs).
New understandings about GRASPS
Since employing GRASPS to guide our unit development, we have come to some understandings about aspects of the model that helping us strengthen the delivery of our units.
In the past, we often defined the role of the student in a very brief way - almost like a job title. You will be a a designer , engineer , marketer , etc. However we found that this often relied on student’s assumptions of what the role is. The role is very important as it defines the perspective from which the student approaches the task.
Now, we spend some time considering the role of the student in this inquiry, the skills they need, and how this role is closely connected to the Goal, Audience, and Product. For example, in a unit that defines the role as a design researcher , we spend time in class unpacking what this role entails, and how it connected to the goal, audience, and product. We discuss and highlight the skills, perspectives, and approaches that a person in this role might need to draw upon in order to be successful.
Some questions we ask in the planning stages to help us better identify and describe the role include:
What are some authentic roles that are related to the goal or discipline?
How will students understand the scope and expectations of the role?
What prior knowledge about the role will students have?
What skills and knowledge will students need to be successful in this role?
Is there a role model that students can refer to or meet in person?
The audience provides much context to the inquiry. To this end, the audience helps teachers identify, organize, and prioritize the content and skills that students need in order to meet the needs of the audience. This goes beyond just satisfying the immediate needs of the audience, but also includes understanding the audience from a user-centered design perspective and empathizing with their needs in order to develop a more successful design solution. We’ve started to use User-Task-Environment analysis as part of the research approach. In Design, this approach also supports our research goals, and helps students think more broadly about the problem.
Some guiding questions we ask include:
What is the relationship between the audience and the role?
What are the defining characteristics of the audience, and how might these influence the skills and knowledge needed by students to be successful?
Developing stronger GRASPS assessments
To support teachers I’ve created a guide to developing a GRASPS assessment and incorporating into MYP and DP units of inquiry.
GRASPS and Authenticity
When teaching design, we are asking the student to adopt the role of the designer. But for many, that is an unclear role. Students may be unclear about the aspects of their role and how to be successful in it.
A bigger question is the authenticity of the task-- Are we asking students to do something that would be done in the real world outside of the classroom? McTighe and Wiggins define a performance task as authentic if it "reflects the way in which people in the world outside of school must use knowledge and skill to address various situations where expertise is tested or challenged." This distinction helps frame the significance and relevance of the task for the student. Students can see the value of learning the content and developing a solution.
Having performance tasks that are clear and authentic also allow for better assessment - the expectations are clear and we (the teachers) can see evidence of transfer of knowledge and understanding--the synthesis of knowledge into a design solution.
Our program has been thinking about the authenticity of our tasks and units as we continue to develop the conceptual inquiry nature of our program. We have started to use the G.R.A.S.P.S. model to structure performance tasks to clarify expectations and goals, both for the teachers and the students. The assessment associated with the inquiry is structured around the following expectations and goals.
A recent unit title Designing Like You Give A Damn , used this model to develop an open inquiry into issues of sustainability and global importance. On the Unit website , parts of the grasp model are made clear for the students.
We are looking to further develop these as the framework for developing our units and assessment pieces, with the goal of moving towards authentic assessment and authentic tasks.
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- 1. UbD Design Guide Worksheets - MOD M © Wiggins & McTighe 2008 page 1 Goal: • The goal (within the scenario) is to create an illustrated brochure to teach the 2nd graders about the importance of good nutrition for healthful living Role: • You are a teacher of nutrition Audience: • The target audience is a 2nd grade class Situation: • You need to. show the difference between a balanced diet and an unhealthy diet. Product/Performance and Purpose: • You need to create a brochure that describes helathy vs un- healthy eating and shows at least 2 health problems that can oc- cur as a result of poor eating. Standards & Criteria for Success: • Your brochure should... - contain accurate information - easy for 2nd graders to read and understand Figure M. 04 Performance Task Scenario (G.R.A.S.P.S. - Nutrition example) T
- 2. UbD Design Guide Worksheets - MOD M © Wiggins & McTighe 2008 page 2 Goal: • The goal is to create a menu for the 3-day trip to the Out- door Ed. Center. Role: • You are a menu advisor Audience: • The target audience The Outdoor Center Director (and your peers) Situation: • You need to propose a nutrtionally-balanced and tasy menu, with- in budfget, for 3 days of camping by the entire class. Product/Performance and Purpose: • Menu plan for three days, including the 3 main meals and 3 snacks (a.m., p.m., and campfire). • Letter to the director explaining how your menu meets the USDA nutritional guide- lines. Include a chart showing a breakdown of the fat, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and calories. Explain how you made it as tasty as possible. Standards & Criteria for Success: • healthy and tasty menu • well written and well supported letter. Figure M. 05 Performance Task Scenario (G.R.A.S.P.S. - Nutrition example TASK #2) T
- 3. UbD Design Guide Worksheets - MOD M © Wiggins & McTighe 2008 page 3 Goal: • The goal (within the scenario) is to minimize costs for shipping bulk quantities of M&Ms. Role: • You are an engineer in the packaging department of the M&M Candy Company. Audience: • The target audience is non-engineer company executives. Situation: • You need to convince penny-pinching company officers that your container design will provide cost-effective use of the given materials, maximize shipping volume of bulk quantities of M&Ms, and be safe to transport. Product/Performance and Purpose: • You need to design a shipping container from given materials for the safe and cost-effective shipping of the M&Ms. Then you will prepare a written proposal in which you include a diagram and show mathematically how your container design provides effective use of the given materials and maximizes the shipping volume of the M&Ms. Standards & Criteria for Success: • Your container proposal should... - provide cost-effective use of the given materials - maximize shipping volume of bulk quantities of M&Ms - be safe to transport • Your models must make the mathematical case. Figure M. 06 Performance Task Scenario (G.R.A.S.P.S. - mathematics example) T
- 4. UbD Design Guide Worksheets - MOD M © Wiggins & McTighe 2008 page 4 Goal: • Your goal is to help a group of foreign visitors understand the key historic, geographic and economic features of our region. Role: • You are an intern at the Regional Office of Tourism. Audience: • The audience is a group of nine foreign visitors (who speak English). Situation: • You have been asked to develop a plan, including a budget, for a four-day tour of the region. Plan your tour so that the visitors are shown sites that best illustrate the key historical, geographic and economic features of our region. Product/Performance and Purpose: • You need to prepare a written tour itinerary and a budget for the trip. You should include an explanation of why each site was selected and how it will help the visitors understand the key historic, geographic and economic features of our region. Include a map tracing the route for the tour. [Optional: Provide a budget for the trip.]* Standards & Criteria for Success: • Your proposed tour plan needs to include... - an itinerary and route map - the key historical, geographic and economic features of the region - a clear rationale for the selected sites *- accurate and complete budget figures Figure M.07 Performance Task Scenario (G.R.A.S.P.S. - social studies example) T
- 5. UbD Design Guide Worksheets - MOD M © Wiggins & McTighe 2008 page 5 Figure M.08 Task Scenario Builder (G.R.A.S.P.S.) Consider the following set of stem statements as you construct a scenario for a performance task. Refer to the previous idea sheets to help you brainstorm possible scenarios. (Note: These are idea starters. Resist the urge to fill in all of the blanks.) Goal : • Your task is ________________________________________________________________________ • The goal is to _______________________________________________________________________ • The problem/challenge is______________________________________________________________ • The obstacle(s) to overcome is (are) _____________________________________________________ Role: • You are ___________________________________________________________________________ • You have been asked to _______________________________________________________________ • Your job is ________________________________________________________________________ Audience: • Your client(s) is (are) ________________________________________________________________ • The target audience is _ ______________________________________________________________ • You need to convince ________________________________________________________________ Situation: • The context you find yourself in is ______________________________________________________ • The challenge involves dealing with _ ___________________________________________________ Product/Performance and Purpose: • You will create a ____________________________________________________________________ in order to _________________________________________________________________________ • You need to develop _________________________________________________________________ so that ____________________________________________________________________________ Standards & Criteria for Success: • Your performance needs to ____________________________________________________________ • Your work will be judged by __________________________________________________________ • Your product must meet the following standards ___________________________________________ • A successful result will _______________________________________________________________ T
- 6. UbD Design Guide Worksheets - MOD M © Wiggins & McTighe 2008 page 6 Figure M.09 Alternate Task Starter Scenario ❍ accurate ❍ appropriate ❍ apt ❍ clear ❍ convinc- ing ❍ correct ❍ creative ❍ defensible ❍ effective ❍ efficient ❍ elegant ❍ empathetic ❍ entertaining ❍ justified ❍ informative ❍ insightful ❍ novel ❍ organized ❍ perceptive ❍ persuasive ❍ polished ❍ precise ❍ proficient ❍ reflective ❍ responsive ❍ revealing ❍ sensi- tive ❍ skilled ❍ sophisticated ❍ supported ❍ thorough ❍ well-crafted ❍ understandable ❍ unique ❍ valid ❍ verified ❍ other: ________________________ so that: ▼ ▼ meet the following criteria: the museum visitors better understand the dangers and hardships and of pioneer life on the prairie You are a curator of a US History museum. Design a museum exhibit on ‘prairie life’ containing drawings, simulated diary entries, and pioneer letters back home. The goal of your exhibit is to inform visitors about the challenges faced by the pioneers. Your exhibit should... 4 4 4
- 7. UbD Design Guide Worksheets - MOD M © Wiggins & McTighe 2008 page 7 ❍ accurate ❍ appropriate ❍ apt ❍ clear ❍ convinc- ing ❍ correct ❍ creative ❍ defensible ❍ effective ❍ efficient ❍ elegant ❍ empathetic ❍ entertaining ❍ justified ❍ informative ❍ insightful ❍ novel ❍ organized ❍ perceptive ❍ persuasive ❍ polished ❍ precise ❍ proficient ❍ reflective ❍ responsive ❍ revealing ❍ sensi- tive ❍ skilled ❍ sophisticated ❍ supported ❍ thorough ❍ well-crafted ❍ understandable ❍ unique ❍ valid ❍ verified ❍ other: ________________________ so that: ▼ ▼ meet the following criteria: Figure M.10 Alternate Approach to Tasks Scenario Design an experiment to determine which of four brands of detergent will most effectively remove three different types of stains on cotton fabric. Provide written directions and a graphic display to guide an absent classmate through your procedure. Your experimental procedure should... another experimenter can follow your procedure and determine the most effective detergent for removing each stain 4 4 4 4
- 8. UbD Design Guide Worksheets - MOD M © Wiggins & McTighe 2008 page 8 Students show they understand that: when they can: ▼ ApplyExplainInterpretShift Perspective EmpathizeSelf Assess why/how/that/the/of... ▼ ❒ adjust ❒ reflect upon ❒ revise ❒ self assess ❒ recognize their habit ❒ empathize with ❒ imagine ❒ walk in the shoes of... ❒ entertain the possibility that... ❒ analyze ❒ illustrate ❒ interpret ❒ make sense of... ❒ reveal ❒ represent ❒ show ❒ connect ❒ describe ❒ explain ❒ inform ❒ prove ❒ persuade ❒ teach ❒ show ❒ justify ❒ compare ❒ critique ❒ debate ❒ evaluate ❒ shift perspective ❒ test ❒ consider the various views ❒ create ❒ construct ❒ de-bug ❒ decide ❒ design ❒ demonstrate ❒ guide ❒ use ❒ perform ❒ propose ❒ coach ❒ solve ▼▼▼▼▼ Figure M. 11 - Ideas for Performance Tasks The life of pioneers on the prairie was filled with hardships and dangers. a museum exhibit to reveal how the life of pioneers on the prairie was filled with hardships and dangers how much harder life was then as compared to today 4 4 4 4 4 the suffering and the courage of the pioneers why people leave home - then versus now letters, diaries and photographs for insights into the hardships of prairie life others about the hardships and dangers of pioneer life 4
- 9. UbD Design Guide Worksheets - MOD M © Wiggins & McTighe 2008 page 9 ❍ ❑ actor ❍ ❑ advertiser ❍ ❑ artist/illustrator ❍ ❑ author ❍ ❑ biographer ❍ ❑ board member ❍ ❑ boss ❍ ❑ boy/girl scout ❍ ❑ businessperson ❍ ❑ candidate ❍ ❑ carpenter ❍ ❑ cartoon character ❍ ❑ cartoonist ❍ ❑ caterer ❍ ❑ celebrity ❍ ❑ chairperson ❍ ❑ chef ❍ ❑ choreographer ❍ ❑ CEO ❍ ❑ coach ❍ ❑ community members ❍ ❑ composer ❍ ❑ clients/customer ❍ ❑ construction worker ❍ ❑ dancer ❍ ❑ designer ❍ ❑ detective ❍ ❑ editor ❍ ❑ elected official ❍ ❑ embassy staff ❍ ❑ engineer ❍ ❑ expert (in ________) ❍ ❑ eye witness ❍ ❑ playwright ❍ ❑ poet ❍ ❑ policeman/woman ❍ ❑ pollster ❍ ❑ radio listener ❍ ❑ reader ❍ ❑ reporter ❍ ❑ researcher ❍ ❑ reviewer ❍ ❑ sailor ❍ ❑ school official ❍ ❑ scientist ❍ ❑ ship’s captain ❍ ❑ social scientist ❍ ❑ social worker ❍ ❑ statistician ❍ ❑ storyteller ❍ ❑ student ❍ ❑ taxi driver ❍ ❑ teacher ❍ ❑ t.v. viewer ❍ ❑ tour guide ❍ ❑ trainer ❍ ❑ travel agent ❍ ❑ traveler ❍ ❑ t.v./movie character ❍ ❑ tutor ❍ ❑ viewer ❍ ❑ visitor ❍ ❑ website designer ❍ ❑ zoo keeper Figure M. 12 STUDENT ROLES and AUDIENC- ❍ ❑ family member ❍ ❑ farmer ❍ ❑ filmmaker ❍ ❑ firefighter ❍ ❑ forest ranger ❍ ❑ friend ❍ ❑ geologist ❍ ❑ government official ❍ ❑ historian ❍ ❑ historical figure ❍ ❑ illustrator ❍ ❑ intern ❍ ❑ interviewer ❍ ❑ inventor ❍ ❑ judge ❍ ❑ jury ❍ ❑ lawyer ❍ ❑ library patron ❍ ❑ literary critic ❍ ❑ lobbyist ❍ ❑ meteorologist ❍ ❑ museum director/ curator ❍ ❑ museum goer ❍ ❑ neighbor ❍ ❑ newscaster ❍ ❑ novelist ❍ ❑ nutritionist ❍ ❑ panelist ❍ ❑ parent ❍ ❑ park ranger ❍ ❑ pen pal ❍ ❑ photographer ❍ ❑ pilot KEY: ROLES = ❍ and AUDIENCES = ❑
- 10. UbD Design Guide Worksheets - MOD M © Wiggins & McTighe 2008 page 10 Figure M. 13 Possible Products and Performances ❍ advertisement ❍ biography ❍ book report/review ❍ brochure ❍ collection ❍ crossword puzzle ❍ editorial ❍ essay ❍ experiment record ❍ historical fiction ❍ journal ❍ lab report ❍ letter ❍ log ❍ magazine article ❍ memo ❍ newscast ❍ newspaper article ❍ play ❍ poem ❍ position paper ❍ proposal ❍ research report ❍ script ❍ story ❍ test ❍ web site What student product(s) and/or performance(s) will provide appropriate evidence of understanding and/or proficiency? The following lists offer possibilities. (Remember that student products and performances should be framed by an explicit purpose or goal and an identified audience.) Written Oral Visual ❍ audiotape ❍ conversation ❍ debate ❍ discussion ❍ dramatization ❍ dramatic reading ❍ interview ❍ radio script ❍ oral presentation ❍ oral report ❍ poetry reading ❍ puppet show ❍ rap ❍ skit ❍ speech ❍ song ❍ teach a lesson ❍ advertisement ❍ banner ❍ cartoon ❍ collage ❍ computer graphic ❍ data display ❍ design ❍ diagram ❍ diorama ❍ display ❍ drawing ❍ filmstrip ❍ flyer ❍ game ❍ graph ❍ map ❍ model ❍ Power Point show ❍ photograph ❍ questionnaire ❍ painting ❍ poster ❍ scrapbook ❍ sculpture ❍ slide show ❍ storyboard ❍ videotape ❍ web site ❍ other: _______________ ❍ other: _______________
- 11. UbD Design Guide Worksheets - MOD M © Wiggins & McTighe 2008 page 11 Performance Tasks: Student Self-Assessment and Reflection: Other Evidence: (e.g., tests, quizzes, prompts, work samples, observations, etc.) You Are What You Eat – Students create an illustrated brochure to teach younger children about the importance of good nutrition for healthful living. Chow Down – Students develop a 3-day menu for meals and snacks for an upcoming Outdoor Education camp experience. They write a letter to the camp director to explain why their menu should be selected (by showing that it meets the USDA Food Pyramid recommendations, yet tasty enough for the students). Quiz 1 - the food groups Quiz 2 - the USDA Food Pyramid Prompt - Describe two health problems that could arise as a result of poor nutrition and explain how these could be avoided. 1. self assess the brochure, You are What You Eat 2. self assess the camp menu, Chow Down 3. self assess the extent to which you “eat healthy” at the end of unit (compared to the beginning) M. 16 A Collection of Assessment Evidence (example - unit on Nutrition - grades 5-6) T OE SA
- 12. UbD Design Guide Worksheets - MOD M © Wiggins & McTighe 2008 page 12 Stage1Stage2 Ifthedesiredresultsrequirelearners tounderstand,addressEssentialQues- tions,know,andbeabletodo... then,theassessmentsbelowmatchup withthedesiredresult(s)bynumber: M. 17 Check: Is every desired result assessed? For every desired result, you need one or more assessments. Use the sheet below to identify the corresponding number(s) of each STAGE 1 element next to the assessment(s) designed to provide evidence of it. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Note:thereneednotbea1-to-1correspondence.Somedesiredresultswillbe assessedbymorethanoneassessmentandviceversa.
- 13. UbD Design Guide Worksheets - MOD M © Wiggins & McTighe 2008 page 13 1. _____ The performance task(s) in Box T is/are aligned with one or more desired results in Stage 1. The task(s) will yield appropriate evidence of the identified understanding(s). 2. _____ The task(s) involve(s) a complex, real-world (i.e., “authentic”) application of the identified knowledge, skill, and understandings. 3. _____ The task(s) is/are written in the G.R.A.S.P.S. form. 4. _____ The task(s) allow(s) students to demonstrate understanding with some choice/options/variety in the performances and/or products. 5. _____ The task(s) are not likely to be performed well without a clear grasp of the understandings the task is meant to assess. 6. _____ The task(s) require(s) one or more of the six facets of understandings. 7. _____ The scoring rubric(s) include(s) distinct traits of understanding and success- ful performance. 8. _____ The scoring rubric(s) highlight what is appropriate, given the evidence needs suggested by the Desired Results of Stage 1. 9. _____ Other appropriate evidence has been identified in summary form (e.g., key quizzes, exams, student self-assessments, etc.) to supplement the evidence provided by the performance task(s) . 10. _____ Students are given the opportunity to self-assess and reflect upon their learning and performance. Figure M. 18 - Design Checklist – Stage 2 Performance Task(s) T Other Evidence OE
- 14. UbD Design Guide Worksheets - MOD M © Wiggins & McTighe 2008 page 14 What evidence will show that students understand and can meet other unit goals? Performance Tasks: T Determine acceptable evidence. • A performance task – o Requires transfer – i.e. a repertoire of knowledge and skill to be used wisely and effectively in a new situation - i.e. used with understanding o Asks students to “do” the subject, not just recall and plug in discrete learning, out of context o Is set in a novel situation, with little or no scaffolding or cues provided: the student has to think through what the task demands as part of the assessment (the “game” vs. the scaffolded and simplified “drills”) o should be as realistic as possible, in which students confront the same kinds of chal- lenges, constraints, and options found in the real world • A task, like any other aspect of STAGE 2, is meant to yield evidence of key elements in Stage 1; it is not meant to be a learning activity: validity is the primary concern, not wheth- er it is interesting or fun as a task. • A performance “task” may actually involve a variety of situations, performances, and prod- ucts (i.e. it can be a “complex” task, with related sub-tasks). • Writing the task in GRASPS form makes it likely that the task will involve authentic trans- fer: give the student a Goal, a Role, an Audience, a Setting, Performance/product demands, and a set of Standards and criteria by which work will be judged. • Build in as much differentiation via options and alternatives in the situation(s) as is fea- sible – without corrupting the validity of the assessment. (i.e. the various options should be relatively equal in what they demand and reveal about a student’s understanding.) • The goal is sufficient evidence for each student. Any group component to a task should be matched by evidence about the individual’s understanding. This can be accomplished by having separate parts to the task (such as a separate sub-task in which roles and perspective change – e.g. from group design team to solo reviewer) or by quizzes and prompts given to each student (and put in Other Evidence) that assess for the same goals. • Don’t end up unwittingly assessing for evidence unrelated to your goals. Keep asking the “2-question validity test” and its implications: can the task be done well without under- standing? Can the task be done poorly by someone with deep understanding? Then, the task will not yield valid evidence, by definition. Be especially careful of demanding a mode or method of assessment that favors some student ability over others in ways that are not at the heart of your goals, e.g. you end up assessing - unfairly - writing ability or multimedia facility instead of understanding of the subject. FIGURE M. 19 ASSESSMENT TIPS & GUIDELINES
- 15. UbD Design Guide Worksheets - MOD M © Wiggins & McTighe 2008 page 15 Other Evidence (quizzes, tests, prompts, observations, dialogues, etc.): • Identify the specific questions related to key knowledge and skill goals from Stage 1 that you expect students to be able to answer upon completion of this unit. • Typical tests, quizzes, and homework belong in this box: discrete and uncomplicated as- sessment of skills and factual knowledge that isn’t otherwise assessed in the performance tasks. • Supplement all your performance tasks, as needed, to get more reliable and varied evidence of understanding, knowledge, and skill for each individual student. This is especially im- portant if you claim that this unit addresses a Standard in an in-depth way, and the perfor- mance tasks are basically group projects. You need evidence for each student, ultimately. • The goal is a photo album, not a single snapshot, for the assessments in the unit to be both valid and reliable. • Don’t confuse “assessment evidence” with “giving grades.” Just because you plan to assess it doesn’t mean you will give a grade to it. Nor does the assessment “score” need to trans- late mechanically into a “grade.” If the task is difficult and new for students, then grade accordingly; if the point of the assessment is more for feedback, then don’t make it a grade for achievement, only process and effort, etc. This is not to say: don’t give grades. It is to say: don’t confuse “feedback to students” with the separate act of “giving grades.” [Local grading policy may be in need for discussion and revision as a separate issue.] Rubric(s): • Clarify the criteria by which constructed-response work should be judged, and develop rubrics for each continuum of quality. It doesn’t matter whether you have a single rubric in a matrix form for the various traits or separate pages for each rubric related to each criterion. What matters is that you assess all the independent variables central to success. • Use as many distinct criteria as needed to ensure excellent feedback. Rule of thumb: the fewest independent variables. e.g. “accuracy” is independent of “well-developed” and “creative” so that at least those three criteria should be assessed separately. • Make sure that you identify valid criteria for scoring that suit the transfer goals and understandings, not just the particulars of the performance tasks (e.g. if the Standard involves causes and effects of the Civil War, score “causal reasoning” and “insight of historical analysis” not just “high-quality museum display”) Stage 2: Determine acceptable evidence. M. 19 ASSESSMENT DESIGN TIPS & GUIDELINES
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Performance Task in GRASPS Form TLE
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SUBJECT : TLE 9 GRADE : 9-LG092019 QUARTER : Unit 1 CONTENT/UNIT : BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION TRANSFER GOAL: The
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SUBJECT : TLE 9 GRADE : 9-LG092019 QUARTER : Unit 1 CONTENT/UNIT : BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION TRANSFER GOAL: The students on their own and in the long run will be able to perform bread and pastry production as prescribed in the TESDA Training Regulation. Performance Task in GRASPS FORM To perform bread and pastry production as prescribed in the TESDA Training Regulation GOAL ROLE AUDIENCE SITUATION Baker, Cake decorator Costumers, TESDA Personnel, Assessors, POEA Representatives In partnership with POEA, we are going to conduct training seminar in the community to cater the employment demand abroad in Bread and Pastry Production PRODUCT/PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Business Proposal and Production Plan, Baked Products Palatability - 40% Appearance – 30% Texture – 30% In partnership with POEA,we are going to conduct training seminar in the community to cater the employment demand abroad in Pastry Production wherein,they will become a baker through performing Bread and Pastry Production. SUBJECT : TLE 7 GRADE : 7-LG072019 QUARTER : 1st Quarter CONTENT/UNIT : CAREGIVING TRANSFER GOAL: The students on their own and in the long run will be able to demonstrate common competencies in caregiving as prescribed in the TESDA Training Regulation. Performance Task in GRASPS FORM GOAL To demonstrate common competencies in caregiving as prescribed in the TESDA Training Regulation. ROLE Caregiver, Massage Therapist, Concern Citizens, Employer, POEA AUDIENCE SITUATION Filipino people, Client, POEA representatives, TESDA representatives. In partnership with POEA, we are going to conduct training seminar in the community to cater the employment demand abroad in caregiving. PRODUCT/PERFORMANCE STANDARDS The students should be equipped with the following competencies: Show how each tool, equipment, and paraphernalia is used. Take vital sign like blood pressure and temperature using the correct tools. Demonstrate how to clean tools and equipment used in meal preparation and in taking vital sign. Compute desirable body weight and total energy requirement of patient. Identify hazard and risk and take measures to control them. Critical thinking Self-Direction Engage (Collaboration) Safety 30% 25% 20% 25% SUBJECT : TLE 8 GRADE : 8-LG092019 QUARTER : 1st Quarter CONTENT/UNIT : BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION TRANSFER GOAL: The students on their own and in the long run will be able to demonstrate how the tools and equipment in bread and pastry production be used applying safety precautions in the kitchen as prescribed in the TESDA Training Regulation. Performance Task in GRASPS FORM GOAL To demonstrate how the tools and equipment in bread and pastry production be used applying safety precautions in the kitchen as prescribed in the TESDA Training Regulation. Demonstrator ROLE Participant Trainer AUDIENCE Concern Citizens’, TESDA Personnel SITUATION Participate in one of the competition sponsored by TESDA where they will demonstrate how the tools and equipment in bread and pastry production be used applying safety precautions in the kitchen. PRODUCT/PERFORMANCE STANDARDS The students should be equipped with the following competencies: Identify and classify baking tools and equipment. Communication. Use and care of each baking tools and equipment Collaboration/ Communication. Make an inventory of baking tools and equipment. Critical and system thinking Clean properly baking tools and equipment. Communication Palatability - 40% Appearance – 30% Texture – 30% SUBJECT : TLE 10 GRADE : 10-LG0102019 QUARTER : 1st Quarter CONTENT/UNIT : BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION TRANSFER GOAL: The students on their own and in the long run will be able to demonstrate the ability to produce a variety of specialty cakes in accordance with the industry’s standards and the ability to pack, label, and store cake product based on the establishment’s standards and procedures, and occupational health and safety practices. Performance Task in GRASPS FORM GOAL ROLE AUDIENCE To demonstrate the ability to produce a variety of specialty cakes in accordance with the industry’s standards and the ability to pack, label, and store cake product based on the establishment’s standards and procedures, and occupational health and safety practices. Baker, Cake decorator, Pastry Chief Costumers, TESDA Personnel, Assessors, POEA Representatives SITUATION PRODUCT/PERFORMANCE STANDARDS In partnership with TESDA, we are going to conduct training seminar in the community to prepare them to be an entrepreneur in the future. Business Proposal and Production Plan, Baked Products Palatability - 40% Appearance – 30% Texture – 30%
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Using Performance Task-GRASPS to Assess Student Performance in Higher Education Courses
This qualitative study explores student ability to integrate the use of knowledge and skills and demonstrates how students utilize skills in real-world situations through performance tasks using the performance task—GRASPS (Goals, Rules, Audience, Situation, Product/Performance, Standards) model. This study was carried out in the Introduction for Education course for 44 students in a teacher qualification program. Interviews, performance task-GRASPS reports, student focus group conversations, student reflections, and student products were used. Grounded theory was employed to analyze qualitative data. Findings show that students explained many educative features, including their views and beliefs toward performance tasks and authentic assessment. Students also understood their abilities through their products and reports about their roles in real-life situations. In addition, students demonstrated what they achieved and developed by themselves, and they felt happy and enjoyed their roles in real-life situations. The students reported that the evaluation method improved their self-confidence. Diversity was observed among the products and performances; students addressed the same challenges differently. This method develops the performance of university professors in authentic assessment by establishing performance tasks and using various rubrics to assess various products. These findings indicate that teacher educators must use authentic assessments and performance tasks to make students interactive in courses and utilize rubrics in evaluation that provide students real description of their performances.
Academia Lasalliana Journal of Education and Humanities
Clark Dominic Alipasa
Educational reforms are continuously crafted to improve many aspects of teaching and learning including the development of authentic performance tasks engineered through the Goal, Role, Audience, Situation, Product/Performance, and Standards (GRASPS) Model. These real-world problems provide opportunities enabling students to produce solutions, manage situations, and develop different perspectives while also enabling teachers to transform their students to be knowledge producers and not merely knowledge consumers or keepers. With the rapid growth of studies about the effectiveness of performance assessments, the implementation of GRASPS creates its own space in the world of educational research. Against this backdrop, the study sought to determine the impediments experienced by teachers and students in selected schools through an expert-validated instrument. Based on the responses of 65 teachers and 367 participating students, findings revealed that in using GRASPS, the problems of teachers were as follows: administering group tasks, the insufficient time to meet all the target outputs, and the inadequate facilities for the fulfilment of complex tasks. On the students' part, the problems were: lack of guidance in doing the performance assessments, ways to collaborate with others during group tasks, and the limited time to complete them. Further research could be done on the teachers' and students' time management and planning, scaffolding for transfer techniques, and cooperative learning to further the implementation of authentic learning and to enhance the existing faculty development programs in different schools.
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Journal of Further and Higher Education
Yuen Fook Chan
Enriqueta D Reston
Within the framework of Constructive Alignment in Outcomes-based Teaching and Learning (OBTL), we examined the connections between teaching practice and student outcomes in the implementation of authentic performance assessment in pre-service teacher education. Using the case study design, we described the interactions of teaching-learning and assessment in the implementation of an authentic assessment task based on a Five-Dimensional Framework. From the lens of critical reflections on teaching practice, we found that authentic assessment provided a holistic approach to classroom assessment where formative assessments are embedded within a summative performance task. Students found the activity a meaningful learning experience as they produced quality products and performances that relate to their future role as professional teachers. We conclude on the importance of authentic assessments in aligning teaching and assessment with student learning outcomes and recommend the use of org...
Meng Wee Sean Lim
My development of the authentic assessment and rubrics. The following sections are in my paper: Introduction, Rationale for Developing the Authentic Assessment and Rubrics, Literature Review of Authentic Assessment, Method (subject and sample for the designed authentic assessment, how to align the authentic assessment with the curriculum and instruction, procedures of implementation ─ how to incorporate the designed authentic assessment and rubrics into the day-to-day classroom instruction, how to use the assessment information/results for formative and summative assessment, How to communicate the assessment results to students and parents), and Discussions on the potential benefits and/or limitations of the authentic assessment and implementation issues or challenges.
AsTEN Journal of Teacher Education
Within the framework of Constructive Alignment in Outcomes-based Teaching and Learning (OBTL), we examined the connections between teaching practice and student outcomes in the implementation of authentic performance assessment in pre-service teacher education. Using the case study design, we described the interactions of teaching-learning and assessment in the implementation of an authentic assessment task based on a Five-Dimensional Framework. From the lens of critical reflections on teaching practice, we found that authentic assessment provided a holistic approach to classroom assessment where formative assessments are embedded within a summative performance task. Students found the activity a meaningful learning experience as they produced quality products and performances that relate to their future role as professional teachers. We conclude on the importance of authentic assessments in aligning teaching and assessment with student learning outcomes and recommend the use of organizing frameworks in both planning and reflection of teaching and assessment practices
This paper underscores the process of using Authentic Assessment (AA) not only as a tool to assess learning but also as an approach to enhance learning in a school in the context of Pakistan. Data was collected through classroom observations, conducting interviews, analyzing relevant documents and maintaining person reflective diary. Findings indicate that AA helped in enhancing students’ learning such as knowledge about the noise pollution, planning, developing interview questions, interviewing people, preparing posters, giving presentation and responding to audience question. The study also revealed that in AA the student’s role changed from a passive test taker to an active participant in the process of assessment. For example, they identified issue, found out solution, presented it to the community and also took part in the assessment of their own performance through self-assessment. The teacher’s role during AA changed as a facilitator. Moreover, the study indicates that develo...
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