• Assignment Statement

An Assignment statement is a statement that is used to set a value to the variable name in a program .

Assignment statement allows a variable to hold different types of values during its program lifespan. Another way of understanding an assignment statement is, it stores a value in the memory location which is denoted by a variable name.

Assignment Statement Method

The symbol used in an assignment statement is called as an operator . The symbol is ‘=’ .

Note: The Assignment Operator should never be used for Equality purpose which is double equal sign ‘==’.

The Basic Syntax of Assignment Statement in a programming language is :

variable = expression ;

variable = variable name

expression = it could be either a direct value or a math expression/formula or a function call

Few programming languages such as Java, C, C++ require data type to be specified for the variable, so that it is easy to allocate memory space and store those values during program execution.

data_type variable_name = value ;

In the above-given examples, Variable ‘a’ is assigned a value in the same statement as per its defined data type. A data type is only declared for Variable ‘b’. In the 3 rd line of code, Variable ‘a’ is reassigned the value 25. The 4 th line of code assigns the value for Variable ‘b’.

Assignment Statement Forms

This is one of the most common forms of Assignment Statements. Here the Variable name is defined, initialized, and assigned a value in the same statement. This form is generally used when we want to use the Variable quite a few times and we do not want to change its value very frequently.

Tuple Assignment

Generally, we use this form when we want to define and assign values for more than 1 variable at the same time. This saves time and is an easy method. Note that here every individual variable has a different value assigned to it.

(Code In Python)

Sequence Assignment

(Code in Python)

Multiple-target Assignment or Chain Assignment

In this format, a single value is assigned to two or more variables.

Augmented Assignment

In this format, we use the combination of mathematical expressions and values for the Variable. Other augmented Assignment forms are: &=, -=, **=, etc.

Browse more Topics Under Data Types, Variables and Constants

  • Concept of Data types
  • Built-in Data Types
  • Constants in Programing Language 
  • Access Modifier
  • Variables of Built-in-Datatypes
  • Declaration/Initialization of Variables
  • Type Modifier

Few Rules for Assignment Statement

Few Rules to be followed while writing the Assignment Statements are:

  • Variable names must begin with a letter, underscore, non-number character. Each language has its own conventions.
  • The Data type defined and the variable value must match.
  • A variable name once defined can only be used once in the program. You cannot define it again to store other types of value.
  • If you assign a new value to an existing variable, it will overwrite the previous value and assign the new value.

FAQs on Assignment Statement

Q1. Which of the following shows the syntax of an  assignment statement ?

  • variablename = expression ;
  • expression = variable ;
  • datatype = variablename ;
  • expression = datatype variable ;

Answer – Option A.

Q2. What is an expression ?

  • Same as statement
  • List of statements that make up a program
  • Combination of literals, operators, variables, math formulas used to calculate a value
  • Numbers expressed in digits

Answer – Option C.

Q3. What are the two steps that take place when an  assignment statement  is executed?

  • Evaluate the expression, store the value in the variable
  • Reserve memory, fill it with value
  • Evaluate variable, store the result
  • Store the value in the variable, evaluate the expression.

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1.7 Java | Assignment Statements & Expressions

An assignment statement designates a value for a variable. An assignment statement can be used as an expression in Java.

After a variable is declared, you can assign a value to it by using an assignment statement . In Java, the equal sign = is used as the assignment operator . The syntax for assignment statements is as follows:

An expression represents a computation involving values, variables, and operators that, when taking them together, evaluates to a value. For example, consider the following code:

You can use a variable in an expression. A variable can also be used on both sides of the =  operator. For example:

In the above assignment statement, the result of x + 1  is assigned to the variable x . Let’s say that x is 1 before the statement is executed, and so becomes 2 after the statement execution.

To assign a value to a variable, you must place the variable name to the left of the assignment operator. Thus the following statement is wrong:

Note that the math equation  x = 2 * x + 1  ≠ the Java expression x = 2 * x + 1

Java Assignment Statement vs Assignment Expression

Which is equivalent to:

And this statement

is equivalent to:

Note: The data type of a variable on the left must be compatible with the data type of a value on the right. For example, int x = 1.0 would be illegal, because the data type of x is int (integer) and does not accept the double value 1.0 without Type Casting .

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The Assignment Statement

Assignment is fundamental to Python; it is how the objects created by an expression are preserved. We'll look at the basic assignment statement, plus the augmented assignment statement. Later, in Multiple Assignment Statement , we'll look at multiple assignment.

Basic Assignment

We create and change variables primarily with the assignment statement. This statement provides an expression and a variable name which will be used to label the value of the expression.

variable = expression

Here's a short script that contains some examples of assignment statements.

Example 6.1. example3.py

We have an object, the number 150 , which we assign to the variable shares . We have an expression 3+5.0/8.0 , which creates a floating-point number, which we save in the variable price . We have another expression, shares * price , which creates a floating-point number; we save this in value so that we can print it. This script created three new variables.

Since this file is new, we'll need to do the chmod +x example3.py once, after we create this file. Then, when we run this progam, we see the following.

Augmented Assignment

Any of the usual arithmetic operations can be combined with assignment to create an augmented assignment statement.

For example, look at this augmented assignment statement:

This statement is a shorthand that means the same thing as the following:

Here's a larger example

Example 6.2. portfolio.py

First, we'll do the chmod +x portfolio.py on this file. Then, when we run this progam, we see the following.

The other basic math operations can be used similarly, although the purpose gets obscure for some operations. These include -=, *=, /=, %=, &=, ^=, |=, <<= and >>=.

Here's a lengthy example. This is an extension of Craps Odds in the section called “Numeric Types and Expressions” .

In craps, the first roll of the dice is called the “ come out roll ”. This roll can be won immediately if one rolls 7 or 11. It can be lost immediately if one roll 2, 3 or 12. The remaining numbers establish a point and the game continues.

Example 6.3. craps.py

There's a 22.2% chance of winning, and a 11.1% chance of losing. What's the chance of establishing a point? One way is to figure that it's what's left after winning or loosing. The total of all probabilities always add to 1. Subtract the odds of winning and the odds of losing and what's left is the odds of setting a point.

Here's another way to figure the odds of rolling 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 or 10.

By the way, you can add the statement print win + lose + point to confirm that these odds all add to 1. This means that we have defined all possible outcomes for the come out roll in craps.

Tracing Execution

We can trace the execution of a program by simply following the changes of value of all the variables in the program. Here's an example for Example 6.3, “craps.py”

  • win: 0 , 0.16 , 0.22
  • list: 0 , 0.027 , 0.083 , 0.111
  • point: 1 , 0.77 , 0.66

As with many things Python, there is some additional subtlety to this, but we'll cover those topics later. For example, multiple-assignment statement is something we'll look into in more deeply in Chapter 13, Tuples .

what is the definition of assignment statement

Variable Assignment

To "assign" a variable means to symbolically associate a specific piece of information with a name. Any operations that are applied to this "name" (or variable) must hold true for any possible values. The assignment operator is the equals sign which SHOULD NEVER be used for equality, which is the double equals sign.

The '=' symbol is the assignment operator. Warning, while the assignment operator looks like the traditional mathematical equals sign, this is NOT the case. The equals operator is '=='

Design Pattern

To evaluate an assignment statement:

  • Evaluate the "right side" of the expression (to the right of the equal sign).
  • Once everything is figured out, place the computed value into the variables bucket.

We've already seen many examples of assignment. Assignment means: "storing a value (of a particular type) under a variable name" . Think of each assignment as copying the value of the righthand side of the expression into a "bucket" associated with the left hand side name!

Read this as, the variable called "name" is "assigned" the value computed by the expression to the right of the assignment operator ('=');

Now that you have seen some variables being assigned, tell me what the following code means?

The answer to above questions: the assignment means that lkjasdlfjlskdfjlksjdflkj is a variable (a really badly named one), but a variable none-the-less. jlkajdsf and lkjsdflkjsdf must also be variables. The sum of the two numbers held in jlkajdsf and lkjsdflkjsdf is stored in the variable lkjasdlfjlskdfjlksjdflkj.

Examples of builtin Data and Variables (and Constants)

For more info, use the "help" command: (e.g., help realmin);

Examples of using Data and Variable

Pattern to memorize, assignment pattern.

The assignment pattern creates a new variable, if this is the first time we have seen the "name", or, updates the variable to a new value!

Read the following code in English as: First, compute the value of the thing to the right of the assignment operator (the =). then store the computed value under the given name, destroying anything that was there before.

Or more concisely: assign the variable "name" the value computed by "right_hand_expression"

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Different Forms of Assignment Statements in Python

  • Assignment creates object references instead of copying the objects.
  • Python creates a variable name the first time when they are assigned a value.
  • Names must be assigned before being referenced.
  • There are some operations that perform assignments implicitly.

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What Is an Assignment Statement in Java?


Java programs store data values in variables. When a programmer creates a variable in a Java application, he declares the type and name of the variable, then assigns a value to it. The value of a variable can be altered at subsequent points in execution using further assignment operations. The assignment statement in Java involves using the assignment operator to set the value of a variable. The exact syntax depends on the type of variable receiving a value.


In Java, variables are strongly typed. This means that when you declare a variable in a Java program, you must declare its type, followed by its name. The following sample Java code demonstrates declaring two variables, one of primitive-type integer and one of an object type for a class within the application: int num; ApplicationHelper myHelp;

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Once a program contains a variable declaration, the kind of value assigned to the variable must be suited to the type declared. These variable declarations could be followed by assignment statements on subsequent lines. However, the assignment operation could also take place on the same line as the declaration.

Assignment in Java is the process of giving a value to a primitive-type variable or giving an object reference to an object-type variable. The equals sign acts as assignment operator in Java, followed by the value to assign. The following sample Java code demonstrates assigning a value to a primitive-type integer variable, which has already been declared: num = 5;

The assignment operation could alternatively appear within the same line of code as the declaration of the variable, as follows: int num = 5;

The value of the variable can be altered again in subsequent processing as in this example: num++;

This code increments the variable value, adding a value of one to it.


When the assignment statement appears with object references, the assignment operation may also involve object instantiation. When Java code creates a new object instance of a Java class in an application, the "new" keyword causes the constructor method of the class to execute, instantiating the object. The following sample code demonstrates instantiating an object variable: myHelp = new ApplicationHelper();

This could also appear within the same line as the variable declaration as follows: ApplicationHelper myHelp = new ApplicationHelper();

When this line of code executes, the class constructor method executes, returning an instance of the class, a reference to which is stored by the variable.


Once a variable has been declared and assigned a value, a Java program can refer to the variable in subsequent processing. For primitive-type variables, the variable name refers to a stored value. For object types, the variable refers to the location of the object instance in memory. This means that two object variables can point to the same instance, as in the following sample code: ApplicationHelper myHelp = new ApplicationHelper(); ApplicationHelper sameHelp = myHelp;

This syntax appears commonly when programs pass object references as parameters to class methods.

  • Oracle: The Java Tutorials - Variables
  • Oracle: The Java Tutorials - Assignment, Arithmetic, and Unary Operators
  • Oracle: The Java Tutorials - Primitive Data Types
  • Oracle: The Java Tutorials - Creating Objects
  • Oracle: The Java Tutorials - What Is an Object?
  • Oracle: The Java Tutorials - Summary of Variables
  • Java Language Specification; Types, Values, and Variables; 2000
  • Oracle: The Java Tutorials - Understanding Instance and Class Members

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7. Simple statements ¶

A simple statement is comprised within a single logical line. Several simple statements may occur on a single line separated by semicolons. The syntax for simple statements is:

7.1. Expression statements ¶

Expression statements are used (mostly interactively) to compute and write a value, or (usually) to call a procedure (a function that returns no meaningful result; in Python, procedures return the value None ). Other uses of expression statements are allowed and occasionally useful. The syntax for an expression statement is:

An expression statement evaluates the expression list (which may be a single expression).

In interactive mode, if the value is not None , it is converted to a string using the built-in repr() function and the resulting string is written to standard output on a line by itself (except if the result is None , so that procedure calls do not cause any output.)

7.2. Assignment statements ¶

Assignment statements are used to (re)bind names to values and to modify attributes or items of mutable objects:

(See section Primaries for the syntax definitions for attributeref , subscription , and slicing .)

An assignment statement evaluates the expression list (remember that this can be a single expression or a comma-separated list, the latter yielding a tuple) and assigns the single resulting object to each of the target lists, from left to right.

Assignment is defined recursively depending on the form of the target (list). When a target is part of a mutable object (an attribute reference, subscription or slicing), the mutable object must ultimately perform the assignment and decide about its validity, and may raise an exception if the assignment is unacceptable. The rules observed by various types and the exceptions raised are given with the definition of the object types (see section The standard type hierarchy ).

Assignment of an object to a target list, optionally enclosed in parentheses or square brackets, is recursively defined as follows.

If the target list is a single target with no trailing comma, optionally in parentheses, the object is assigned to that target.

If the target list contains one target prefixed with an asterisk, called a “starred” target: The object must be an iterable with at least as many items as there are targets in the target list, minus one. The first items of the iterable are assigned, from left to right, to the targets before the starred target. The final items of the iterable are assigned to the targets after the starred target. A list of the remaining items in the iterable is then assigned to the starred target (the list can be empty).

Else: The object must be an iterable with the same number of items as there are targets in the target list, and the items are assigned, from left to right, to the corresponding targets.

Assignment of an object to a single target is recursively defined as follows.

If the target is an identifier (name):

If the name does not occur in a global or nonlocal statement in the current code block: the name is bound to the object in the current local namespace.

Otherwise: the name is bound to the object in the global namespace or the outer namespace determined by nonlocal , respectively.

The name is rebound if it was already bound. This may cause the reference count for the object previously bound to the name to reach zero, causing the object to be deallocated and its destructor (if it has one) to be called.

If the target is an attribute reference: The primary expression in the reference is evaluated. It should yield an object with assignable attributes; if this is not the case, TypeError is raised. That object is then asked to assign the assigned object to the given attribute; if it cannot perform the assignment, it raises an exception (usually but not necessarily AttributeError ).

Note: If the object is a class instance and the attribute reference occurs on both sides of the assignment operator, the right-hand side expression, a.x can access either an instance attribute or (if no instance attribute exists) a class attribute. The left-hand side target a.x is always set as an instance attribute, creating it if necessary. Thus, the two occurrences of a.x do not necessarily refer to the same attribute: if the right-hand side expression refers to a class attribute, the left-hand side creates a new instance attribute as the target of the assignment:

This description does not necessarily apply to descriptor attributes, such as properties created with property() .

If the target is a subscription: The primary expression in the reference is evaluated. It should yield either a mutable sequence object (such as a list) or a mapping object (such as a dictionary). Next, the subscript expression is evaluated.

If the primary is a mutable sequence object (such as a list), the subscript must yield an integer. If it is negative, the sequence’s length is added to it. The resulting value must be a nonnegative integer less than the sequence’s length, and the sequence is asked to assign the assigned object to its item with that index. If the index is out of range, IndexError is raised (assignment to a subscripted sequence cannot add new items to a list).

If the primary is a mapping object (such as a dictionary), the subscript must have a type compatible with the mapping’s key type, and the mapping is then asked to create a key/value pair which maps the subscript to the assigned object. This can either replace an existing key/value pair with the same key value, or insert a new key/value pair (if no key with the same value existed).

For user-defined objects, the __setitem__() method is called with appropriate arguments.

If the target is a slicing: The primary expression in the reference is evaluated. It should yield a mutable sequence object (such as a list). The assigned object should be a sequence object of the same type. Next, the lower and upper bound expressions are evaluated, insofar they are present; defaults are zero and the sequence’s length. The bounds should evaluate to integers. If either bound is negative, the sequence’s length is added to it. The resulting bounds are clipped to lie between zero and the sequence’s length, inclusive. Finally, the sequence object is asked to replace the slice with the items of the assigned sequence. The length of the slice may be different from the length of the assigned sequence, thus changing the length of the target sequence, if the target sequence allows it.

CPython implementation detail: In the current implementation, the syntax for targets is taken to be the same as for expressions, and invalid syntax is rejected during the code generation phase, causing less detailed error messages.

Although the definition of assignment implies that overlaps between the left-hand side and the right-hand side are ‘simultaneous’ (for example a, b = b, a swaps two variables), overlaps within the collection of assigned-to variables occur left-to-right, sometimes resulting in confusion. For instance, the following program prints [0, 2] :

The specification for the *target feature.

7.2.1. Augmented assignment statements ¶

Augmented assignment is the combination, in a single statement, of a binary operation and an assignment statement:

(See section Primaries for the syntax definitions of the last three symbols.)

An augmented assignment evaluates the target (which, unlike normal assignment statements, cannot be an unpacking) and the expression list, performs the binary operation specific to the type of assignment on the two operands, and assigns the result to the original target. The target is only evaluated once.

An augmented assignment expression like x += 1 can be rewritten as x = x + 1 to achieve a similar, but not exactly equal effect. In the augmented version, x is only evaluated once. Also, when possible, the actual operation is performed in-place , meaning that rather than creating a new object and assigning that to the target, the old object is modified instead.

Unlike normal assignments, augmented assignments evaluate the left-hand side before evaluating the right-hand side. For example, a[i] += f(x) first looks-up a[i] , then it evaluates f(x) and performs the addition, and lastly, it writes the result back to a[i] .

With the exception of assigning to tuples and multiple targets in a single statement, the assignment done by augmented assignment statements is handled the same way as normal assignments. Similarly, with the exception of the possible in-place behavior, the binary operation performed by augmented assignment is the same as the normal binary operations.

For targets which are attribute references, the same caveat about class and instance attributes applies as for regular assignments.

7.2.2. Annotated assignment statements ¶

Annotation assignment is the combination, in a single statement, of a variable or attribute annotation and an optional assignment statement:

The difference from normal Assignment statements is that only a single target is allowed.

For simple names as assignment targets, if in class or module scope, the annotations are evaluated and stored in a special class or module attribute __annotations__ that is a dictionary mapping from variable names (mangled if private) to evaluated annotations. This attribute is writable and is automatically created at the start of class or module body execution, if annotations are found statically.

For expressions as assignment targets, the annotations are evaluated if in class or module scope, but not stored.

If a name is annotated in a function scope, then this name is local for that scope. Annotations are never evaluated and stored in function scopes.

If the right hand side is present, an annotated assignment performs the actual assignment before evaluating annotations (where applicable). If the right hand side is not present for an expression target, then the interpreter evaluates the target except for the last __setitem__() or __setattr__() call.

The proposal that added syntax for annotating the types of variables (including class variables and instance variables), instead of expressing them through comments.

The proposal that added the typing module to provide a standard syntax for type annotations that can be used in static analysis tools and IDEs.

Changed in version 3.8: Now annotated assignments allow the same expressions in the right hand side as regular assignments. Previously, some expressions (like un-parenthesized tuple expressions) caused a syntax error.

7.3. The assert statement ¶

Assert statements are a convenient way to insert debugging assertions into a program:

The simple form, assert expression , is equivalent to

The extended form, assert expression1, expression2 , is equivalent to

These equivalences assume that __debug__ and AssertionError refer to the built-in variables with those names. In the current implementation, the built-in variable __debug__ is True under normal circumstances, False when optimization is requested (command line option -O ). The current code generator emits no code for an assert statement when optimization is requested at compile time. Note that it is unnecessary to include the source code for the expression that failed in the error message; it will be displayed as part of the stack trace.

Assignments to __debug__ are illegal. The value for the built-in variable is determined when the interpreter starts.

7.4. The pass statement ¶

pass is a null operation — when it is executed, nothing happens. It is useful as a placeholder when a statement is required syntactically, but no code needs to be executed, for example:

7.5. The del statement ¶

Deletion is recursively defined very similar to the way assignment is defined. Rather than spelling it out in full details, here are some hints.

Deletion of a target list recursively deletes each target, from left to right.

Deletion of a name removes the binding of that name from the local or global namespace, depending on whether the name occurs in a global statement in the same code block. If the name is unbound, a NameError exception will be raised.

Deletion of attribute references, subscriptions and slicings is passed to the primary object involved; deletion of a slicing is in general equivalent to assignment of an empty slice of the right type (but even this is determined by the sliced object).

Changed in version 3.2: Previously it was illegal to delete a name from the local namespace if it occurs as a free variable in a nested block.

7.6. The return statement ¶

return may only occur syntactically nested in a function definition, not within a nested class definition.

If an expression list is present, it is evaluated, else None is substituted.

return leaves the current function call with the expression list (or None ) as return value.

When return passes control out of a try statement with a finally clause, that finally clause is executed before really leaving the function.

In a generator function, the return statement indicates that the generator is done and will cause StopIteration to be raised. The returned value (if any) is used as an argument to construct StopIteration and becomes the StopIteration.value attribute.

In an asynchronous generator function, an empty return statement indicates that the asynchronous generator is done and will cause StopAsyncIteration to be raised. A non-empty return statement is a syntax error in an asynchronous generator function.

7.7. The yield statement ¶

A yield statement is semantically equivalent to a yield expression . The yield statement can be used to omit the parentheses that would otherwise be required in the equivalent yield expression statement. For example, the yield statements

are equivalent to the yield expression statements

Yield expressions and statements are only used when defining a generator function, and are only used in the body of the generator function. Using yield in a function definition is sufficient to cause that definition to create a generator function instead of a normal function.

For full details of yield semantics, refer to the Yield expressions section.

7.8. The raise statement ¶

If no expressions are present, raise re-raises the exception that is currently being handled, which is also known as the active exception . If there isn’t currently an active exception, a RuntimeError exception is raised indicating that this is an error.

Otherwise, raise evaluates the first expression as the exception object. It must be either a subclass or an instance of BaseException . If it is a class, the exception instance will be obtained when needed by instantiating the class with no arguments.

The type of the exception is the exception instance’s class, the value is the instance itself.

A traceback object is normally created automatically when an exception is raised and attached to it as the __traceback__ attribute. You can create an exception and set your own traceback in one step using the with_traceback() exception method (which returns the same exception instance, with its traceback set to its argument), like so:

The from clause is used for exception chaining: if given, the second expression must be another exception class or instance. If the second expression is an exception instance, it will be attached to the raised exception as the __cause__ attribute (which is writable). If the expression is an exception class, the class will be instantiated and the resulting exception instance will be attached to the raised exception as the __cause__ attribute. If the raised exception is not handled, both exceptions will be printed:

A similar mechanism works implicitly if a new exception is raised when an exception is already being handled. An exception may be handled when an except or finally clause, or a with statement, is used. The previous exception is then attached as the new exception’s __context__ attribute:

Exception chaining can be explicitly suppressed by specifying None in the from clause:

Additional information on exceptions can be found in section Exceptions , and information about handling exceptions is in section The try statement .

Changed in version 3.3: None is now permitted as Y in raise X from Y .

New in version 3.3: The __suppress_context__ attribute to suppress automatic display of the exception context.

Changed in version 3.11: If the traceback of the active exception is modified in an except clause, a subsequent raise statement re-raises the exception with the modified traceback. Previously, the exception was re-raised with the traceback it had when it was caught.

7.9. The break statement ¶

break may only occur syntactically nested in a for or while loop, but not nested in a function or class definition within that loop.

It terminates the nearest enclosing loop, skipping the optional else clause if the loop has one.

If a for loop is terminated by break , the loop control target keeps its current value.

When break passes control out of a try statement with a finally clause, that finally clause is executed before really leaving the loop.

7.10. The continue statement ¶

continue may only occur syntactically nested in a for or while loop, but not nested in a function or class definition within that loop. It continues with the next cycle of the nearest enclosing loop.

When continue passes control out of a try statement with a finally clause, that finally clause is executed before really starting the next loop cycle.

7.11. The import statement ¶

The basic import statement (no from clause) is executed in two steps:

find a module, loading and initializing it if necessary

define a name or names in the local namespace for the scope where the import statement occurs.

When the statement contains multiple clauses (separated by commas) the two steps are carried out separately for each clause, just as though the clauses had been separated out into individual import statements.

The details of the first step, finding and loading modules, are described in greater detail in the section on the import system , which also describes the various types of packages and modules that can be imported, as well as all the hooks that can be used to customize the import system. Note that failures in this step may indicate either that the module could not be located, or that an error occurred while initializing the module, which includes execution of the module’s code.

If the requested module is retrieved successfully, it will be made available in the local namespace in one of three ways:

If the module name is followed by as , then the name following as is bound directly to the imported module.

If no other name is specified, and the module being imported is a top level module, the module’s name is bound in the local namespace as a reference to the imported module

If the module being imported is not a top level module, then the name of the top level package that contains the module is bound in the local namespace as a reference to the top level package. The imported module must be accessed using its full qualified name rather than directly

The from form uses a slightly more complex process:

find the module specified in the from clause, loading and initializing it if necessary;

for each of the identifiers specified in the import clauses:

check if the imported module has an attribute by that name

if not, attempt to import a submodule with that name and then check the imported module again for that attribute

if the attribute is not found, ImportError is raised.

otherwise, a reference to that value is stored in the local namespace, using the name in the as clause if it is present, otherwise using the attribute name

If the list of identifiers is replaced by a star ( '*' ), all public names defined in the module are bound in the local namespace for the scope where the import statement occurs.

The public names defined by a module are determined by checking the module’s namespace for a variable named __all__ ; if defined, it must be a sequence of strings which are names defined or imported by that module. The names given in __all__ are all considered public and are required to exist. If __all__ is not defined, the set of public names includes all names found in the module’s namespace which do not begin with an underscore character ( '_' ). __all__ should contain the entire public API. It is intended to avoid accidentally exporting items that are not part of the API (such as library modules which were imported and used within the module).

The wild card form of import — from module import * — is only allowed at the module level. Attempting to use it in class or function definitions will raise a SyntaxError .

When specifying what module to import you do not have to specify the absolute name of the module. When a module or package is contained within another package it is possible to make a relative import within the same top package without having to mention the package name. By using leading dots in the specified module or package after from you can specify how high to traverse up the current package hierarchy without specifying exact names. One leading dot means the current package where the module making the import exists. Two dots means up one package level. Three dots is up two levels, etc. So if you execute from . import mod from a module in the pkg package then you will end up importing pkg.mod . If you execute from ..subpkg2 import mod from within pkg.subpkg1 you will import pkg.subpkg2.mod . The specification for relative imports is contained in the Package Relative Imports section.

importlib.import_module() is provided to support applications that determine dynamically the modules to be loaded.

Raises an auditing event import with arguments module , filename , sys.path , sys.meta_path , sys.path_hooks .

7.11.1. Future statements ¶

A future statement is a directive to the compiler that a particular module should be compiled using syntax or semantics that will be available in a specified future release of Python where the feature becomes standard.

The future statement is intended to ease migration to future versions of Python that introduce incompatible changes to the language. It allows use of the new features on a per-module basis before the release in which the feature becomes standard.

A future statement must appear near the top of the module. The only lines that can appear before a future statement are:

the module docstring (if any),

blank lines, and

other future statements.

The only feature that requires using the future statement is annotations (see PEP 563 ).

All historical features enabled by the future statement are still recognized by Python 3. The list includes absolute_import , division , generators , generator_stop , unicode_literals , print_function , nested_scopes and with_statement . They are all redundant because they are always enabled, and only kept for backwards compatibility.

A future statement is recognized and treated specially at compile time: Changes to the semantics of core constructs are often implemented by generating different code. It may even be the case that a new feature introduces new incompatible syntax (such as a new reserved word), in which case the compiler may need to parse the module differently. Such decisions cannot be pushed off until runtime.

For any given release, the compiler knows which feature names have been defined, and raises a compile-time error if a future statement contains a feature not known to it.

The direct runtime semantics are the same as for any import statement: there is a standard module __future__ , described later, and it will be imported in the usual way at the time the future statement is executed.

The interesting runtime semantics depend on the specific feature enabled by the future statement.

Note that there is nothing special about the statement:

That is not a future statement; it’s an ordinary import statement with no special semantics or syntax restrictions.

Code compiled by calls to the built-in functions exec() and compile() that occur in a module M containing a future statement will, by default, use the new syntax or semantics associated with the future statement. This can be controlled by optional arguments to compile() — see the documentation of that function for details.

A future statement typed at an interactive interpreter prompt will take effect for the rest of the interpreter session. If an interpreter is started with the -i option, is passed a script name to execute, and the script includes a future statement, it will be in effect in the interactive session started after the script is executed.

The original proposal for the __future__ mechanism.

7.12. The global statement ¶

The global statement is a declaration which holds for the entire current code block. It means that the listed identifiers are to be interpreted as globals. It would be impossible to assign to a global variable without global , although free variables may refer to globals without being declared global.

Names listed in a global statement must not be used in the same code block textually preceding that global statement.

Names listed in a global statement must not be defined as formal parameters, or as targets in with statements or except clauses, or in a for target list, class definition, function definition, import statement, or variable annotation.

CPython implementation detail: The current implementation does not enforce some of these restrictions, but programs should not abuse this freedom, as future implementations may enforce them or silently change the meaning of the program.

Programmer’s note: global is a directive to the parser. It applies only to code parsed at the same time as the global statement. In particular, a global statement contained in a string or code object supplied to the built-in exec() function does not affect the code block containing the function call, and code contained in such a string is unaffected by global statements in the code containing the function call. The same applies to the eval() and compile() functions.

7.13. The nonlocal statement ¶

The nonlocal statement causes the listed identifiers to refer to previously bound variables in the nearest enclosing scope excluding globals. This is important because the default behavior for binding is to search the local namespace first. The statement allows encapsulated code to rebind variables outside of the local scope besides the global (module) scope.

Names listed in a nonlocal statement, unlike those listed in a global statement, must refer to pre-existing bindings in an enclosing scope (the scope in which a new binding should be created cannot be determined unambiguously).

Names listed in a nonlocal statement must not collide with pre-existing bindings in the local scope.

The specification for the nonlocal statement.

7.14. The type statement ¶

The type statement declares a type alias, which is an instance of typing.TypeAliasType .

For example, the following statement creates a type alias:

This code is roughly equivalent to:

annotation-def indicates an annotation scope , which behaves mostly like a function, but with several small differences.

The value of the type alias is evaluated in the annotation scope. It is not evaluated when the type alias is created, but only when the value is accessed through the type alias’s __value__ attribute (see Lazy evaluation ). This allows the type alias to refer to names that are not yet defined.

Type aliases may be made generic by adding a type parameter list after the name. See Generic type aliases for more.

type is a soft keyword .

New in version 3.12.

Introduced the type statement and syntax for generic classes and functions.

Table of Contents

  • 7.1. Expression statements
  • 7.2.1. Augmented assignment statements
  • 7.2.2. Annotated assignment statements
  • 7.3. The assert statement
  • 7.4. The pass statement
  • 7.5. The del statement
  • 7.6. The return statement
  • 7.7. The yield statement
  • 7.8. The raise statement
  • 7.9. The break statement
  • 7.10. The continue statement
  • 7.11.1. Future statements
  • 7.12. The global statement
  • 7.13. The nonlocal statement
  • 7.14. The type statement

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6. Expressions

8. Compound statements

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The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Understanding Assignments

What this handout is about.

The first step in any successful college writing venture is reading the assignment. While this sounds like a simple task, it can be a tough one. This handout will help you unravel your assignment and begin to craft an effective response. Much of the following advice will involve translating typical assignment terms and practices into meaningful clues to the type of writing your instructor expects. See our short video for more tips.

Basic beginnings

Regardless of the assignment, department, or instructor, adopting these two habits will serve you well :

  • Read the assignment carefully as soon as you receive it. Do not put this task off—reading the assignment at the beginning will save you time, stress, and problems later. An assignment can look pretty straightforward at first, particularly if the instructor has provided lots of information. That does not mean it will not take time and effort to complete; you may even have to learn a new skill to complete the assignment.
  • Ask the instructor about anything you do not understand. Do not hesitate to approach your instructor. Instructors would prefer to set you straight before you hand the paper in. That’s also when you will find their feedback most useful.

Assignment formats

Many assignments follow a basic format. Assignments often begin with an overview of the topic, include a central verb or verbs that describe the task, and offer some additional suggestions, questions, or prompts to get you started.

An Overview of Some Kind

The instructor might set the stage with some general discussion of the subject of the assignment, introduce the topic, or remind you of something pertinent that you have discussed in class. For example:

“Throughout history, gerbils have played a key role in politics,” or “In the last few weeks of class, we have focused on the evening wear of the housefly …”

The Task of the Assignment

Pay attention; this part tells you what to do when you write the paper. Look for the key verb or verbs in the sentence. Words like analyze, summarize, or compare direct you to think about your topic in a certain way. Also pay attention to words such as how, what, when, where, and why; these words guide your attention toward specific information. (See the section in this handout titled “Key Terms” for more information.)

“Analyze the effect that gerbils had on the Russian Revolution”, or “Suggest an interpretation of housefly undergarments that differs from Darwin’s.”

Additional Material to Think about

Here you will find some questions to use as springboards as you begin to think about the topic. Instructors usually include these questions as suggestions rather than requirements. Do not feel compelled to answer every question unless the instructor asks you to do so. Pay attention to the order of the questions. Sometimes they suggest the thinking process your instructor imagines you will need to follow to begin thinking about the topic.

“You may wish to consider the differing views held by Communist gerbils vs. Monarchist gerbils, or Can there be such a thing as ‘the housefly garment industry’ or is it just a home-based craft?”

These are the instructor’s comments about writing expectations:

“Be concise”, “Write effectively”, or “Argue furiously.”

Technical Details

These instructions usually indicate format rules or guidelines.

“Your paper must be typed in Palatino font on gray paper and must not exceed 600 pages. It is due on the anniversary of Mao Tse-tung’s death.”

The assignment’s parts may not appear in exactly this order, and each part may be very long or really short. Nonetheless, being aware of this standard pattern can help you understand what your instructor wants you to do.

Interpreting the assignment

Ask yourself a few basic questions as you read and jot down the answers on the assignment sheet:

Why did your instructor ask you to do this particular task?

Who is your audience.

  • What kind of evidence do you need to support your ideas?

What kind of writing style is acceptable?

  • What are the absolute rules of the paper?

Try to look at the question from the point of view of the instructor. Recognize that your instructor has a reason for giving you this assignment and for giving it to you at a particular point in the semester. In every assignment, the instructor has a challenge for you. This challenge could be anything from demonstrating an ability to think clearly to demonstrating an ability to use the library. See the assignment not as a vague suggestion of what to do but as an opportunity to show that you can handle the course material as directed. Paper assignments give you more than a topic to discuss—they ask you to do something with the topic. Keep reminding yourself of that. Be careful to avoid the other extreme as well: do not read more into the assignment than what is there.

Of course, your instructor has given you an assignment so that he or she will be able to assess your understanding of the course material and give you an appropriate grade. But there is more to it than that. Your instructor has tried to design a learning experience of some kind. Your instructor wants you to think about something in a particular way for a particular reason. If you read the course description at the beginning of your syllabus, review the assigned readings, and consider the assignment itself, you may begin to see the plan, purpose, or approach to the subject matter that your instructor has created for you. If you still aren’t sure of the assignment’s goals, try asking the instructor. For help with this, see our handout on getting feedback .

Given your instructor’s efforts, it helps to answer the question: What is my purpose in completing this assignment? Is it to gather research from a variety of outside sources and present a coherent picture? Is it to take material I have been learning in class and apply it to a new situation? Is it to prove a point one way or another? Key words from the assignment can help you figure this out. Look for key terms in the form of active verbs that tell you what to do.

Key Terms: Finding Those Active Verbs

Here are some common key words and definitions to help you think about assignment terms:

Information words Ask you to demonstrate what you know about the subject, such as who, what, when, where, how, and why.

  • define —give the subject’s meaning (according to someone or something). Sometimes you have to give more than one view on the subject’s meaning
  • describe —provide details about the subject by answering question words (such as who, what, when, where, how, and why); you might also give details related to the five senses (what you see, hear, feel, taste, and smell)
  • explain —give reasons why or examples of how something happened
  • illustrate —give descriptive examples of the subject and show how each is connected with the subject
  • summarize —briefly list the important ideas you learned about the subject
  • trace —outline how something has changed or developed from an earlier time to its current form
  • research —gather material from outside sources about the subject, often with the implication or requirement that you will analyze what you have found

Relation words Ask you to demonstrate how things are connected.

  • compare —show how two or more things are similar (and, sometimes, different)
  • contrast —show how two or more things are dissimilar
  • apply—use details that you’ve been given to demonstrate how an idea, theory, or concept works in a particular situation
  • cause —show how one event or series of events made something else happen
  • relate —show or describe the connections between things

Interpretation words Ask you to defend ideas of your own about the subject. Do not see these words as requesting opinion alone (unless the assignment specifically says so), but as requiring opinion that is supported by concrete evidence. Remember examples, principles, definitions, or concepts from class or research and use them in your interpretation.

  • assess —summarize your opinion of the subject and measure it against something
  • prove, justify —give reasons or examples to demonstrate how or why something is the truth
  • evaluate, respond —state your opinion of the subject as good, bad, or some combination of the two, with examples and reasons
  • support —give reasons or evidence for something you believe (be sure to state clearly what it is that you believe)
  • synthesize —put two or more things together that have not been put together in class or in your readings before; do not just summarize one and then the other and say that they are similar or different—you must provide a reason for putting them together that runs all the way through the paper
  • analyze —determine how individual parts create or relate to the whole, figure out how something works, what it might mean, or why it is important
  • argue —take a side and defend it with evidence against the other side

More Clues to Your Purpose As you read the assignment, think about what the teacher does in class:

  • What kinds of textbooks or coursepack did your instructor choose for the course—ones that provide background information, explain theories or perspectives, or argue a point of view?
  • In lecture, does your instructor ask your opinion, try to prove her point of view, or use keywords that show up again in the assignment?
  • What kinds of assignments are typical in this discipline? Social science classes often expect more research. Humanities classes thrive on interpretation and analysis.
  • How do the assignments, readings, and lectures work together in the course? Instructors spend time designing courses, sometimes even arguing with their peers about the most effective course materials. Figuring out the overall design to the course will help you understand what each assignment is meant to achieve.

Now, what about your reader? Most undergraduates think of their audience as the instructor. True, your instructor is a good person to keep in mind as you write. But for the purposes of a good paper, think of your audience as someone like your roommate: smart enough to understand a clear, logical argument, but not someone who already knows exactly what is going on in your particular paper. Remember, even if the instructor knows everything there is to know about your paper topic, he or she still has to read your paper and assess your understanding. In other words, teach the material to your reader.

Aiming a paper at your audience happens in two ways: you make decisions about the tone and the level of information you want to convey.

  • Tone means the “voice” of your paper. Should you be chatty, formal, or objective? Usually you will find some happy medium—you do not want to alienate your reader by sounding condescending or superior, but you do not want to, um, like, totally wig on the man, you know? Eschew ostentatious erudition: some students think the way to sound academic is to use big words. Be careful—you can sound ridiculous, especially if you use the wrong big words.
  • The level of information you use depends on who you think your audience is. If you imagine your audience as your instructor and she already knows everything you have to say, you may find yourself leaving out key information that can cause your argument to be unconvincing and illogical. But you do not have to explain every single word or issue. If you are telling your roommate what happened on your favorite science fiction TV show last night, you do not say, “First a dark-haired white man of average height, wearing a suit and carrying a flashlight, walked into the room. Then a purple alien with fifteen arms and at least three eyes turned around. Then the man smiled slightly. In the background, you could hear a clock ticking. The room was fairly dark and had at least two windows that I saw.” You also do not say, “This guy found some aliens. The end.” Find some balance of useful details that support your main point.

You’ll find a much more detailed discussion of these concepts in our handout on audience .

The Grim Truth

With a few exceptions (including some lab and ethnography reports), you are probably being asked to make an argument. You must convince your audience. It is easy to forget this aim when you are researching and writing; as you become involved in your subject matter, you may become enmeshed in the details and focus on learning or simply telling the information you have found. You need to do more than just repeat what you have read. Your writing should have a point, and you should be able to say it in a sentence. Sometimes instructors call this sentence a “thesis” or a “claim.”

So, if your instructor tells you to write about some aspect of oral hygiene, you do not want to just list: “First, you brush your teeth with a soft brush and some peanut butter. Then, you floss with unwaxed, bologna-flavored string. Finally, gargle with bourbon.” Instead, you could say, “Of all the oral cleaning methods, sandblasting removes the most plaque. Therefore it should be recommended by the American Dental Association.” Or, “From an aesthetic perspective, moldy teeth can be quite charming. However, their joys are short-lived.”

Convincing the reader of your argument is the goal of academic writing. It doesn’t have to say “argument” anywhere in the assignment for you to need one. Look at the assignment and think about what kind of argument you could make about it instead of just seeing it as a checklist of information you have to present. For help with understanding the role of argument in academic writing, see our handout on argument .

What kind of evidence do you need?

There are many kinds of evidence, and what type of evidence will work for your assignment can depend on several factors–the discipline, the parameters of the assignment, and your instructor’s preference. Should you use statistics? Historical examples? Do you need to conduct your own experiment? Can you rely on personal experience? See our handout on evidence for suggestions on how to use evidence appropriately.

Make sure you are clear about this part of the assignment, because your use of evidence will be crucial in writing a successful paper. You are not just learning how to argue; you are learning how to argue with specific types of materials and ideas. Ask your instructor what counts as acceptable evidence. You can also ask a librarian for help. No matter what kind of evidence you use, be sure to cite it correctly—see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial .

You cannot always tell from the assignment just what sort of writing style your instructor expects. The instructor may be really laid back in class but still expect you to sound formal in writing. Or the instructor may be fairly formal in class and ask you to write a reflection paper where you need to use “I” and speak from your own experience.

Try to avoid false associations of a particular field with a style (“art historians like wacky creativity,” or “political scientists are boring and just give facts”) and look instead to the types of readings you have been given in class. No one expects you to write like Plato—just use the readings as a guide for what is standard or preferable to your instructor. When in doubt, ask your instructor about the level of formality she or he expects.

No matter what field you are writing for or what facts you are including, if you do not write so that your reader can understand your main idea, you have wasted your time. So make clarity your main goal. For specific help with style, see our handout on style .

Technical details about the assignment

The technical information you are given in an assignment always seems like the easy part. This section can actually give you lots of little hints about approaching the task. Find out if elements such as page length and citation format (see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial ) are negotiable. Some professors do not have strong preferences as long as you are consistent and fully answer the assignment. Some professors are very specific and will deduct big points for deviations.

Usually, the page length tells you something important: The instructor thinks the size of the paper is appropriate to the assignment’s parameters. In plain English, your instructor is telling you how many pages it should take for you to answer the question as fully as you are expected to. So if an assignment is two pages long, you cannot pad your paper with examples or reword your main idea several times. Hit your one point early, defend it with the clearest example, and finish quickly. If an assignment is ten pages long, you can be more complex in your main points and examples—and if you can only produce five pages for that assignment, you need to see someone for help—as soon as possible.

Tricks that don’t work

Your instructors are not fooled when you:

  • spend more time on the cover page than the essay —graphics, cool binders, and cute titles are no replacement for a well-written paper.
  • use huge fonts, wide margins, or extra spacing to pad the page length —these tricks are immediately obvious to the eye. Most instructors use the same word processor you do. They know what’s possible. Such tactics are especially damning when the instructor has a stack of 60 papers to grade and yours is the only one that low-flying airplane pilots could read.
  • use a paper from another class that covered “sort of similar” material . Again, the instructor has a particular task for you to fulfill in the assignment that usually relates to course material and lectures. Your other paper may not cover this material, and turning in the same paper for more than one course may constitute an Honor Code violation . Ask the instructor—it can’t hurt.
  • get all wacky and “creative” before you answer the question . Showing that you are able to think beyond the boundaries of a simple assignment can be good, but you must do what the assignment calls for first. Again, check with your instructor. A humorous tone can be refreshing for someone grading a stack of papers, but it will not get you a good grade if you have not fulfilled the task.

Critical reading of assignments leads to skills in other types of reading and writing. If you get good at figuring out what the real goals of assignments are, you are going to be better at understanding the goals of all of your classes and fields of study.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Home » Assignment – Types, Examples and Writing Guide

Assignment – Types, Examples and Writing Guide

Table of Contents



Assignment is a task given to students by a teacher or professor, usually as a means of assessing their understanding and application of course material. Assignments can take various forms, including essays, research papers, presentations, problem sets, lab reports, and more.

Assignments are typically designed to be completed outside of class time and may require independent research, critical thinking, and analysis. They are often graded and used as a significant component of a student’s overall course grade. The instructions for an assignment usually specify the goals, requirements, and deadlines for completion, and students are expected to meet these criteria to earn a good grade.

History of Assignment

The use of assignments as a tool for teaching and learning has been a part of education for centuries. Following is a brief history of the Assignment.

  • Ancient Times: Assignments such as writing exercises, recitations, and memorization tasks were used to reinforce learning.
  • Medieval Period : Universities began to develop the concept of the assignment, with students completing essays, commentaries, and translations to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of the subject matter.
  • 19th Century : With the growth of schools and universities, assignments became more widespread and were used to assess student progress and achievement.
  • 20th Century: The rise of distance education and online learning led to the further development of assignments as an integral part of the educational process.
  • Present Day: Assignments continue to be used in a variety of educational settings and are seen as an effective way to promote student learning and assess student achievement. The nature and format of assignments continue to evolve in response to changing educational needs and technological innovations.

Types of Assignment

Here are some of the most common types of assignments:

An essay is a piece of writing that presents an argument, analysis, or interpretation of a topic or question. It usually consists of an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.

Essay structure:

  • Introduction : introduces the topic and thesis statement
  • Body paragraphs : each paragraph presents a different argument or idea, with evidence and analysis to support it
  • Conclusion : summarizes the key points and reiterates the thesis statement

Research paper

A research paper involves gathering and analyzing information on a particular topic, and presenting the findings in a well-structured, documented paper. It usually involves conducting original research, collecting data, and presenting it in a clear, organized manner.

Research paper structure:

  • Title page : includes the title of the paper, author’s name, date, and institution
  • Abstract : summarizes the paper’s main points and conclusions
  • Introduction : provides background information on the topic and research question
  • Literature review: summarizes previous research on the topic
  • Methodology : explains how the research was conducted
  • Results : presents the findings of the research
  • Discussion : interprets the results and draws conclusions
  • Conclusion : summarizes the key findings and implications

A case study involves analyzing a real-life situation, problem or issue, and presenting a solution or recommendations based on the analysis. It often involves extensive research, data analysis, and critical thinking.

Case study structure:

  • Introduction : introduces the case study and its purpose
  • Background : provides context and background information on the case
  • Analysis : examines the key issues and problems in the case
  • Solution/recommendations: proposes solutions or recommendations based on the analysis
  • Conclusion: Summarize the key points and implications

A lab report is a scientific document that summarizes the results of a laboratory experiment or research project. It typically includes an introduction, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion.

Lab report structure:

  • Title page : includes the title of the experiment, author’s name, date, and institution
  • Abstract : summarizes the purpose, methodology, and results of the experiment
  • Methods : explains how the experiment was conducted
  • Results : presents the findings of the experiment


A presentation involves delivering information, data or findings to an audience, often with the use of visual aids such as slides, charts, or diagrams. It requires clear communication skills, good organization, and effective use of technology.

Presentation structure:

  • Introduction : introduces the topic and purpose of the presentation
  • Body : presents the main points, findings, or data, with the help of visual aids
  • Conclusion : summarizes the key points and provides a closing statement

Creative Project

A creative project is an assignment that requires students to produce something original, such as a painting, sculpture, video, or creative writing piece. It allows students to demonstrate their creativity and artistic skills.

Creative project structure:

  • Introduction : introduces the project and its purpose
  • Body : presents the creative work, with explanations or descriptions as needed
  • Conclusion : summarizes the key elements and reflects on the creative process.

Examples of Assignments

Following are Examples of Assignment templates samples:

Essay template:

I. Introduction

  • Hook: Grab the reader’s attention with a catchy opening sentence.
  • Background: Provide some context or background information on the topic.
  • Thesis statement: State the main argument or point of your essay.

II. Body paragraphs

  • Topic sentence: Introduce the main idea or argument of the paragraph.
  • Evidence: Provide evidence or examples to support your point.
  • Analysis: Explain how the evidence supports your argument.
  • Transition: Use a transition sentence to lead into the next paragraph.

III. Conclusion

  • Restate thesis: Summarize your main argument or point.
  • Review key points: Summarize the main points you made in your essay.
  • Concluding thoughts: End with a final thought or call to action.

Research paper template:

I. Title page

  • Title: Give your paper a descriptive title.
  • Author: Include your name and institutional affiliation.
  • Date: Provide the date the paper was submitted.

II. Abstract

  • Background: Summarize the background and purpose of your research.
  • Methodology: Describe the methods you used to conduct your research.
  • Results: Summarize the main findings of your research.
  • Conclusion: Provide a brief summary of the implications and conclusions of your research.

III. Introduction

  • Background: Provide some background information on the topic.
  • Research question: State your research question or hypothesis.
  • Purpose: Explain the purpose of your research.

IV. Literature review

  • Background: Summarize previous research on the topic.
  • Gaps in research: Identify gaps or areas that need further research.

V. Methodology

  • Participants: Describe the participants in your study.
  • Procedure: Explain the procedure you used to conduct your research.
  • Measures: Describe the measures you used to collect data.

VI. Results

  • Quantitative results: Summarize the quantitative data you collected.
  • Qualitative results: Summarize the qualitative data you collected.

VII. Discussion

  • Interpretation: Interpret the results and explain what they mean.
  • Implications: Discuss the implications of your research.
  • Limitations: Identify any limitations or weaknesses of your research.

VIII. Conclusion

  • Review key points: Summarize the main points you made in your paper.

Case study template:

  • Background: Provide background information on the case.
  • Research question: State the research question or problem you are examining.
  • Purpose: Explain the purpose of the case study.

II. Analysis

  • Problem: Identify the main problem or issue in the case.
  • Factors: Describe the factors that contributed to the problem.
  • Alternative solutions: Describe potential solutions to the problem.

III. Solution/recommendations

  • Proposed solution: Describe the solution you are proposing.
  • Rationale: Explain why this solution is the best one.
  • Implementation: Describe how the solution can be implemented.

IV. Conclusion

  • Summary: Summarize the main points of your case study.

Lab report template:

  • Title: Give your report a descriptive title.
  • Date: Provide the date the report was submitted.
  • Background: Summarize the background and purpose of the experiment.
  • Methodology: Describe the methods you used to conduct the experiment.
  • Results: Summarize the main findings of the experiment.
  • Conclusion: Provide a brief summary of the implications and conclusions
  • Background: Provide some background information on the experiment.
  • Hypothesis: State your hypothesis or research question.
  • Purpose: Explain the purpose of the experiment.

IV. Materials and methods

  • Materials: List the materials and equipment used in the experiment.
  • Procedure: Describe the procedure you followed to conduct the experiment.
  • Data: Present the data you collected in tables or graphs.
  • Analysis: Analyze the data and describe the patterns or trends you observed.

VI. Discussion

  • Implications: Discuss the implications of your findings.
  • Limitations: Identify any limitations or weaknesses of the experiment.

VII. Conclusion

  • Restate hypothesis: Summarize your hypothesis or research question.
  • Review key points: Summarize the main points you made in your report.

Presentation template:

  • Attention grabber: Grab the audience’s attention with a catchy opening.
  • Purpose: Explain the purpose of your presentation.
  • Overview: Provide an overview of what you will cover in your presentation.

II. Main points

  • Main point 1: Present the first main point of your presentation.
  • Supporting details: Provide supporting details or evidence to support your point.
  • Main point 2: Present the second main point of your presentation.
  • Main point 3: Present the third main point of your presentation.
  • Summary: Summarize the main points of your presentation.
  • Call to action: End with a final thought or call to action.

Creative writing template:

  • Setting: Describe the setting of your story.
  • Characters: Introduce the main characters of your story.
  • Rising action: Introduce the conflict or problem in your story.
  • Climax: Present the most intense moment of the story.
  • Falling action: Resolve the conflict or problem in your story.
  • Resolution: Describe how the conflict or problem was resolved.
  • Final thoughts: End with a final thought or reflection on the story.

How to Write Assignment

Here is a general guide on how to write an assignment:

  • Understand the assignment prompt: Before you begin writing, make sure you understand what the assignment requires. Read the prompt carefully and make note of any specific requirements or guidelines.
  • Research and gather information: Depending on the type of assignment, you may need to do research to gather information to support your argument or points. Use credible sources such as academic journals, books, and reputable websites.
  • Organize your ideas : Once you have gathered all the necessary information, organize your ideas into a clear and logical structure. Consider creating an outline or diagram to help you visualize your ideas.
  • Write a draft: Begin writing your assignment using your organized ideas and research. Don’t worry too much about grammar or sentence structure at this point; the goal is to get your thoughts down on paper.
  • Revise and edit: After you have written a draft, revise and edit your work. Make sure your ideas are presented in a clear and concise manner, and that your sentences and paragraphs flow smoothly.
  • Proofread: Finally, proofread your work for spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. It’s a good idea to have someone else read over your assignment as well to catch any mistakes you may have missed.
  • Submit your assignment : Once you are satisfied with your work, submit your assignment according to the instructions provided by your instructor or professor.

Applications of Assignment

Assignments have many applications across different fields and industries. Here are a few examples:

  • Education : Assignments are a common tool used in education to help students learn and demonstrate their knowledge. They can be used to assess a student’s understanding of a particular topic, to develop critical thinking skills, and to improve writing and research abilities.
  • Business : Assignments can be used in the business world to assess employee skills, to evaluate job performance, and to provide training opportunities. They can also be used to develop business plans, marketing strategies, and financial projections.
  • Journalism : Assignments are often used in journalism to produce news articles, features, and investigative reports. Journalists may be assigned to cover a particular event or topic, or to research and write a story on a specific subject.
  • Research : Assignments can be used in research to collect and analyze data, to conduct experiments, and to present findings in written or oral form. Researchers may be assigned to conduct research on a specific topic, to write a research paper, or to present their findings at a conference or seminar.
  • Government : Assignments can be used in government to develop policy proposals, to conduct research, and to analyze data. Government officials may be assigned to work on a specific project or to conduct research on a particular topic.
  • Non-profit organizations: Assignments can be used in non-profit organizations to develop fundraising strategies, to plan events, and to conduct research. Volunteers may be assigned to work on a specific project or to help with a particular task.

Purpose of Assignment

The purpose of an assignment varies depending on the context in which it is given. However, some common purposes of assignments include:

  • Assessing learning: Assignments are often used to assess a student’s understanding of a particular topic or concept. This allows educators to determine if a student has mastered the material or if they need additional support.
  • Developing skills: Assignments can be used to develop a wide range of skills, such as critical thinking, problem-solving, research, and communication. Assignments that require students to analyze and synthesize information can help to build these skills.
  • Encouraging creativity: Assignments can be designed to encourage students to be creative and think outside the box. This can help to foster innovation and original thinking.
  • Providing feedback : Assignments provide an opportunity for teachers to provide feedback to students on their progress and performance. Feedback can help students to understand where they need to improve and to develop a growth mindset.
  • Meeting learning objectives : Assignments can be designed to help students meet specific learning objectives or outcomes. For example, a writing assignment may be designed to help students improve their writing skills, while a research assignment may be designed to help students develop their research skills.

When to write Assignment

Assignments are typically given by instructors or professors as part of a course or academic program. The timing of when to write an assignment will depend on the specific requirements of the course or program, but in general, assignments should be completed within the timeframe specified by the instructor or program guidelines.

It is important to begin working on assignments as soon as possible to ensure enough time for research, writing, and revisions. Waiting until the last minute can result in rushed work and lower quality output.

It is also important to prioritize assignments based on their due dates and the amount of work required. This will help to manage time effectively and ensure that all assignments are completed on time.

In addition to assignments given by instructors or professors, there may be other situations where writing an assignment is necessary. For example, in the workplace, assignments may be given to complete a specific project or task. In these situations, it is important to establish clear deadlines and expectations to ensure that the assignment is completed on time and to a high standard.

Characteristics of Assignment

Here are some common characteristics of assignments:

  • Purpose : Assignments have a specific purpose, such as assessing knowledge or developing skills. They are designed to help students learn and achieve specific learning objectives.
  • Requirements: Assignments have specific requirements that must be met, such as a word count, format, or specific content. These requirements are usually provided by the instructor or professor.
  • Deadline: Assignments have a specific deadline for completion, which is usually set by the instructor or professor. It is important to meet the deadline to avoid penalties or lower grades.
  • Individual or group work: Assignments can be completed individually or as part of a group. Group assignments may require collaboration and communication with other group members.
  • Feedback : Assignments provide an opportunity for feedback from the instructor or professor. This feedback can help students to identify areas of improvement and to develop their skills.
  • Academic integrity: Assignments require academic integrity, which means that students must submit original work and avoid plagiarism. This includes citing sources properly and following ethical guidelines.
  • Learning outcomes : Assignments are designed to help students achieve specific learning outcomes. These outcomes are usually related to the course objectives and may include developing critical thinking skills, writing abilities, or subject-specific knowledge.

Advantages of Assignment

There are several advantages of assignment, including:

  • Helps in learning: Assignments help students to reinforce their learning and understanding of a particular topic. By completing assignments, students get to apply the concepts learned in class, which helps them to better understand and retain the information.
  • Develops critical thinking skills: Assignments often require students to think critically and analyze information in order to come up with a solution or answer. This helps to develop their critical thinking skills, which are important for success in many areas of life.
  • Encourages creativity: Assignments that require students to create something, such as a piece of writing or a project, can encourage creativity and innovation. This can help students to develop new ideas and perspectives, which can be beneficial in many areas of life.
  • Builds time-management skills: Assignments often come with deadlines, which can help students to develop time-management skills. Learning how to manage time effectively is an important skill that can help students to succeed in many areas of life.
  • Provides feedback: Assignments provide an opportunity for students to receive feedback on their work. This feedback can help students to identify areas where they need to improve and can help them to grow and develop.

Limitations of Assignment

There are also some limitations of assignments that should be considered, including:

  • Limited scope: Assignments are often limited in scope, and may not provide a comprehensive understanding of a particular topic. They may only cover a specific aspect of a topic, and may not provide a full picture of the subject matter.
  • Lack of engagement: Some assignments may not engage students in the learning process, particularly if they are repetitive or not challenging enough. This can lead to a lack of motivation and interest in the subject matter.
  • Time-consuming: Assignments can be time-consuming, particularly if they require a lot of research or writing. This can be a disadvantage for students who have other commitments, such as work or extracurricular activities.
  • Unreliable assessment: The assessment of assignments can be subjective and may not always accurately reflect a student’s understanding or abilities. The grading may be influenced by factors such as the instructor’s personal biases or the student’s writing style.
  • Lack of feedback : Although assignments can provide feedback, this feedback may not always be detailed or useful. Instructors may not have the time or resources to provide detailed feedback on every assignment, which can limit the value of the feedback that students receive.

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Understanding Writing Assignments

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

This resource describes some steps you can take to better understand the requirements of your writing assignments. This resource works for either in-class, teacher-led discussion or for personal use.

How to Decipher the Paper Assignment

Many instructors write their assignment prompts differently. By following a few steps, you can better understand the requirements for the assignment. The best way, as always, is to ask the instructor about anything confusing.

  • Read the prompt the entire way through once. This gives you an overall view of what is going on.
  • Underline or circle the portions that you absolutely must know. This information may include due date, research (source) requirements, page length, and format (MLA, APA, CMS).
  • Underline or circle important phrases. You should know your instructor at least a little by now - what phrases do they use in class? Does he repeatedly say a specific word? If these are in the prompt, you know the instructor wants you to use them in the assignment.
  • Think about how you will address the prompt. The prompt contains clues on how to write the assignment. Your instructor will often describe the ideas they want discussed either in questions, in bullet points, or in the text of the prompt. Think about each of these sentences and number them so that you can write a paragraph or section of your essay on that portion if necessary.
  • Rank ideas in descending order, from most important to least important. Instructors may include more questions or talking points than you can cover in your assignment, so rank them in the order you think is more important. One area of the prompt may be more interesting to you than another.
  • Ask your instructor questions if you have any.

After you are finished with these steps, ask yourself the following:

  • What is the purpose of this assignment? Is my purpose to provide information without forming an argument, to construct an argument based on research, or analyze a poem and discuss its imagery?
  • Who is my audience? Is my instructor my only audience? Who else might read this? Will it be posted online? What are my readers' needs and expectations?
  • What resources do I need to begin work? Do I need to conduct literature (hermeneutic or historical) research, or do I need to review important literature on the topic and then conduct empirical research, such as a survey or an observation? How many sources are required?
  • Who - beyond my instructor - can I contact to help me if I have questions? Do you have a writing lab or student service center that offers tutorials in writing?

(Notes on prompts made in blue )

Poster or Song Analysis: Poster or Song? Poster!

Goals : To systematically consider the rhetorical choices made in either a poster or a song. She says that all the time.

Things to Consider: ah- talking points

  • how the poster addresses its audience and is affected by context I'll do this first - 1.
  • general layout, use of color, contours of light and shade, etc.
  • use of contrast, alignment, repetition, and proximity C.A.R.P. They say that, too. I'll do this third - 3.
  • the point of view the viewer is invited to take, poses of figures in the poster, etc. any text that may be present
  • possible cultural ramifications or social issues that have bearing I'll cover this second - 2.
  • ethical implications
  • how the poster affects us emotionally, or what mood it evokes
  • the poster's implicit argument and its effectiveness said that was important in class, so I'll discuss this last - 4.
  • how the song addresses its audience
  • lyrics: how they rhyme, repeat, what they say
  • use of music, tempo, different instruments
  • possible cultural ramifications or social issues that have bearing
  • emotional effects
  • the implicit argument and its effectiveness

These thinking points are not a step-by-step guideline on how to write your paper; instead, they are various means through which you can approach the subject. I do expect to see at least a few of them addressed, and there are other aspects that may be pertinent to your choice that have not been included in these lists. You will want to find a central idea and base your argument around that. Additionally, you must include a copy of the poster or song that you are working with. Really important!

I will be your audience. This is a formal paper, and you should use academic conventions throughout.

Length: 4 pages Format: Typed, double-spaced, 10-12 point Times New Roman, 1 inch margins I need to remember the format stuff. I messed this up last time =(

Academic Argument Essay

5-7 pages, Times New Roman 12 pt. font, 1 inch margins.

Minimum of five cited sources: 3 must be from academic journals or books

  • Design Plan due: Thurs. 10/19
  • Rough Draft due: Monday 10/30
  • Final Draft due: Thurs. 11/9

Remember this! I missed the deadline last time

The design plan is simply a statement of purpose, as described on pages 40-41 of the book, and an outline. The outline may be formal, as we discussed in class, or a printout of an Open Mind project. It must be a minimum of 1 page typed information, plus 1 page outline.

This project is an expansion of your opinion editorial. While you should avoid repeating any of your exact phrases from Project 2, you may reuse some of the same ideas. Your topic should be similar. You must use research to support your position, and you must also demonstrate a fairly thorough knowledge of any opposing position(s). 2 things to do - my position and the opposite.

Your essay should begin with an introduction that encapsulates your topic and indicates 1 the general trajectory of your argument. You need to have a discernable thesis that appears early in your paper. Your conclusion should restate the thesis in different words, 2 and then draw some additional meaningful analysis out of the developments of your argument. Think of this as a "so what" factor. What are some implications for the future, relating to your topic? What does all this (what you have argued) mean for society, or for the section of it to which your argument pertains? A good conclusion moves outside the topic in the paper and deals with a larger issue.

You should spend at least one paragraph acknowledging and describing the opposing position in a manner that is respectful and honestly representative of the opposition’s 3 views. The counterargument does not need to occur in a certain area, but generally begins or ends your argument. Asserting and attempting to prove each aspect of your argument’s structure should comprise the majority of your paper. Ask yourself what your argument assumes and what must be proven in order to validate your claims. Then go step-by-step, paragraph-by-paragraph, addressing each facet of your position. Most important part!

Finally, pay attention to readability . Just because this is a research paper does not mean that it has to be boring. Use examples and allow your opinion to show through word choice and tone. Proofread before you turn in the paper. Your audience is generally the academic community and specifically me, as a representative of that community. Ok, They want this to be easy to read, to contain examples I find, and they want it to be grammatically correct. I can visit the tutoring center if I get stuck, or I can email the OWL Email Tutors short questions if I have any more problems.

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Js versions, js functions, js html dom, js browser bom, js web apis, js vs jquery, js graphics, js examples, js references, javascript assignment, javascript assignment operators.

Assignment operators assign values to JavaScript variables.

Shift Assignment Operators

Bitwise assignment operators, logical assignment operators, the = operator.

The Simple Assignment Operator assigns a value to a variable.

Simple Assignment Examples

The += operator.

The Addition Assignment Operator adds a value to a variable.

Addition Assignment Examples

The -= operator.

The Subtraction Assignment Operator subtracts a value from a variable.

Subtraction Assignment Example

The *= operator.

The Multiplication Assignment Operator multiplies a variable.

Multiplication Assignment Example

The **= operator.

The Exponentiation Assignment Operator raises a variable to the power of the operand.

Exponentiation Assignment Example

The /= operator.

The Division Assignment Operator divides a variable.

Division Assignment Example

The %= operator.

The Remainder Assignment Operator assigns a remainder to a variable.

Remainder Assignment Example


The <<= Operator

The Left Shift Assignment Operator left shifts a variable.

Left Shift Assignment Example

The >>= operator.

The Right Shift Assignment Operator right shifts a variable (signed).

Right Shift Assignment Example

The >>>= operator.

The Unsigned Right Shift Assignment Operator right shifts a variable (unsigned).

Unsigned Right Shift Assignment Example

The &= operator.

The Bitwise AND Assignment Operator does a bitwise AND operation on two operands and assigns the result to the the variable.

Bitwise AND Assignment Example

The |= operator.

The Bitwise OR Assignment Operator does a bitwise OR operation on two operands and assigns the result to the variable.

Bitwise OR Assignment Example

The ^= operator.

The Bitwise XOR Assignment Operator does a bitwise XOR operation on two operands and assigns the result to the variable.

Bitwise XOR Assignment Example

The &&= operator.

The Logical AND assignment operator is used between two values.

If the first value is true, the second value is assigned.

Logical AND Assignment Example

The &&= operator is an ES2020 feature .

The ||= Operator

The Logical OR assignment operator is used between two values.

If the first value is false, the second value is assigned.

Logical OR Assignment Example

The ||= operator is an ES2020 feature .

The ??= Operator

The Nullish coalescing assignment operator is used between two values.

If the first value is undefined or null, the second value is assigned.

Nullish Coalescing Assignment Example

The ??= operator is an ES2020 feature .

Test Yourself With Exercises

Use the correct assignment operator that will result in x being 15 (same as x = x + y ).

Start the Exercise

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  • Options and Derivatives
  • Strategy & Education

Assignment: Definition in Finance, How It Works, and Examples

Adam Hayes, Ph.D., CFA, is a financial writer with 15+ years Wall Street experience as a derivatives trader. Besides his extensive derivative trading expertise, Adam is an expert in economics and behavioral finance. Adam received his master's in economics from The New School for Social Research and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in sociology. He is a CFA charterholder as well as holding FINRA Series 7, 55 & 63 licenses. He currently researches and teaches economic sociology and the social studies of finance at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

what is the definition of assignment statement

Yarilet Perez is an experienced multimedia journalist and fact-checker with a Master of Science in Journalism. She has worked in multiple cities covering breaking news, politics, education, and more. Her expertise is in personal finance and investing, and real estate.

what is the definition of assignment statement

What Is an Assignment?

Assignment most often refers to one of two definitions in the financial world:

  • The transfer of an individual's rights or property to another person or business. This concept exists in a variety of business transactions and is often spelled out contractually.
  • In trading, assignment occurs when an option contract is exercised. The owner of the contract exercises the contract and assigns the option writer to an obligation to complete the requirements of the contract.

Key Takeaways

  • Assignment is a transfer of rights or property from one party to another.
  • Options assignments occur when option buyers exercise their rights to a position in a security.
  • Other examples of assignments can be found in wages, mortgages, and leases.

Uses For Assignments

Assignment refers to the transfer of some or all property rights and obligations associated with an asset, property, contract, or other asset of value. to another entity through a written agreement.

Assignment rights happen every day in many different situations. A payee, like a utility or a merchant, assigns the right to collect payment from a written check to a bank. A merchant can assign the funds from a line of credit to a manufacturing third party that makes a product that the merchant will eventually sell. A trademark owner can transfer, sell, or give another person interest in the trademark or logo. A homeowner who sells their house assigns the deed to the new buyer.

To be effective, an assignment must involve parties with legal capacity, consideration, consent, and legality of the object.

A wage assignment is a forced payment of an obligation by automatic withholding from an employee’s pay. Courts issue wage assignments for people late with child or spousal support, taxes, loans, or other obligations. Money is automatically subtracted from a worker's paycheck without consent if they have a history of nonpayment. For example, a person delinquent on $100 monthly loan payments has a wage assignment deducting the money from their paycheck and sent to the lender. Wage assignments are helpful in paying back long-term debts.

Another instance can be found in a mortgage assignment. This is where a mortgage deed gives a lender interest in a mortgaged property in return for payments received. Lenders often sell mortgages to third parties, such as other lenders. A mortgage assignment document clarifies the assignment of contract and instructs the borrower in making future mortgage payments, and potentially modifies the mortgage terms.

A final example involves a lease assignment. This benefits a relocating tenant wanting to end a lease early or a landlord looking for rent payments to pay creditors. Once the new tenant signs the lease, taking over responsibility for rent payments and other obligations, the previous tenant is released from those responsibilities. In a separate lease assignment, a landlord agrees to pay a creditor through an assignment of rent due under rental property leases. The agreement is used to pay a mortgage lender if the landlord defaults on the loan or files for bankruptcy . Any rental income would then be paid directly to the lender.

Options Assignment

Options can be assigned when a buyer decides to exercise their right to buy (or sell) stock at a particular strike price . The corresponding seller of the option is not determined when a buyer opens an option trade, but only at the time that an option holder decides to exercise their right to buy stock. So an option seller with open positions is matched with the exercising buyer via automated lottery. The randomly selected seller is then assigned to fulfill the buyer's rights. This is known as an option assignment.

Once assigned, the writer (seller) of the option will have the obligation to sell (if a call option ) or buy (if a put option ) the designated number of shares of stock at the agreed-upon price (the strike price). For instance, if the writer sold calls they would be obligated to sell the stock, and the process is often referred to as having the stock called away . For puts, the buyer of the option sells stock (puts stock shares) to the writer in the form of a short-sold position.

Suppose a trader owns 100 call options on company ABC's stock with a strike price of $10 per share. The stock is now trading at $30 and ABC is due to pay a dividend shortly. As a result, the trader exercises the options early and receives 10,000 shares of ABC paid at $10. At the same time, the other side of the long call (the short call) is assigned the contract and must deliver the shares to the long.

what is the definition of assignment statement

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Definition of assignment

task , duty , job , chore , stint , assignment mean a piece of work to be done.

task implies work imposed by a person in authority or an employer or by circumstance.

duty implies an obligation to perform or responsibility for performance.

job applies to a piece of work voluntarily performed; it may sometimes suggest difficulty or importance.

chore implies a minor routine activity necessary for maintaining a household or farm.

stint implies a carefully allotted or measured quantity of assigned work or service.

assignment implies a definite limited task assigned by one in authority.

Examples of assignment in a Sentence

These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word 'assignment.' Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback about these examples.

Word History

see assign entry 1

14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1

Phrases Containing assignment

  • self - assignment

Dictionary Entries Near assignment

Cite this entry.

“Assignment.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/assignment. Accessed 17 Feb. 2024.

Legal Definition

Legal definition of assignment, more from merriam-webster on assignment.

Nglish: Translation of assignment for Spanish Speakers

Britannica English: Translation of assignment for Arabic Speakers

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Key Components of Assignment Prompts

  • May include general information about the assignment (e.g. Project 1; Minor Assignment 2, etc.) 
  • May include a more specific description of the project or assignment (e.g., Argument Paper; Social Media PSA, etc.)

Purpose & rationale  

  • The assignment should develop students’ understanding of the most important concepts, content, and methods of the course, and be directly related to the course goals. If the course carries Hub areas, consider explaining how the assignment connects to specific aspect of a Hub area. 
  • Provide a clear rationale, so students know how completing the assignment will benefit their learning in the course.

Assignment steps  

  • You may want to scaffold the steps of the assignment for students. This is especially helpful if you have an assignment that spans multiple weeks or is more complicated (e.g., If you are asking students to complete an assignment that involves an outline of ideas, formal proposal, and multiple drafts, make sure you are clearly providing instructions, expectations and deadlines for each step).

Target audience  

  • Students should understand the audience(s) for their work. In some cases, the audience is the instructor; in other cases, the instructor will be grading an assignment, but the students are asked to imagine an alternative, perhaps non-academic audience. In experiential learning or project-based learning, students might be addressing a real-world audience or client. Regardless, students should be able to demonstrate their understanding of single or multiple audiences and adjust their work accordingly. Assignment prompts play a key role in helping students imagine audience. 

Assignment rubric & grading

  • Breaking down your grading criteria helps students understand your expectations for each segment of the assignment, and prevents unnecessary confusion. The length and breakdown of your rubric may depend on your discipline, modality and components of your assignment. 
  • Clarify the scope and weight of the assignment (e.g., 20% of the final grade).

Submission guidelines & due dates

  • Clarify where and how students will be submitting their assignments. If submissions are electronic, ensure requirements for file types, file size, etc. are clear. 
  • Include the due dates and times for the assignment. 

Assignment tools and resources

  • Provide a list of tools and resources students need to complete this assignment. This may be anything from particular software, hardware, books, articles, etc. 
  • You may want to list where and how students can access these resources (e.g., computer lab; library; link to software download; etc). 
  • Offer resources for additional assistance. This may include your availability to meet with students or campus resources. 
  • Specify how students can contact you if they need more time for completing the assignment.

Looking for more templates ?

The Transparency in Learning and Teaching project provides a series of research-based templates for assignment prompts.

You may also be interested in:

Clarity of assignment prompts: considering multimodality, teaching bu hub courses in the summer, ai in the classroom, ctl guide to writing intensive (win) hub courses, ctl guide to individual in community, designing a course syllabus, communicate with students about generative ai.

A band of clouds stretches from Hawaii to California and Oregon.

What is an atmospheric river? With flooding and mudslides in California, a hydrologist explains the good and bad of these storms and how they’re changing

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Hydrologist, Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes, University of California, San Diego

Disclosure statement

Qian Cao does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

University of California, San Diego provides funding as a member of The Conversation US.

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Millions of Californians were under flood alerts as a powerful atmospheric river brought heavy rain to the West Coast in early February 2024. Los Angeles saw one of its wettest days on record with over 4 inches of rain on Feb. 4. Other communities were hit by more than 12 inches of rain and reported widespread flooding . Debris and mudslides shut down sections of highways and roads into Malibu .

It was the latest in a series of atmospheric rivers to bring extreme rainfall to the West Coast. While these storms are dreaded for the damage they can cause, they are also essential to the region’s water supply, particularly in California, as Qian Cao , a hydrologist at the University of California, San Diego, explains.

What are atmospheric rivers?

An atmospheric river is a narrow corridor or filament of concentrated water vapor transported in the atmosphere. It’s like a river in the sky that can be 1,000 miles long . On average, atmospheric rivers have about twice the regular flow of the Amazon River .

When atmospheric rivers run up against mountains or run into local atmospheric dynamics and are forced to ascend, the moisture they carry cools and condenses, so they can produce intense rainfall or snowfall.

Atmospheric rivers occur all over the world, most commonly in the mid-latitudes. They form when large-scale weather patterns align to create narrow channels, or filaments, of intense moisture transport. These start over warm water, typically tropical oceans, and are guided toward the coast by low-level jet streams ahead of cold fronts of extratropical cyclones.

Along the U.S. West Coast, the Pacific Ocean serves as the reservoir of moisture for the storm, and the mountain ranges act as barriers, which is why the western sides of the coastal ranges and Sierra Nevada see so much rain and snow.

Why are back-to-back atmospheric rivers a high flood risk?

Consecutive atmospheric rivers, known as AR families, can cause significant flooding .

The first heavy downpours saturate the ground. As consecutive storms arrive , their precipitation falls on soil that can’t absorb more water. That contributes to more runoff. Rivers and streams fill up. In the meantime, there may be snowmelt due to warm temperatures, further adding to the runoff and flood risk.

California experienced a historic run of nine consecutive atmospheric rivers in the span of three weeks in December 2022 and January 2023. The storms helped bring most reservoirs back to historical averages in 2023 after several drought years, but they also produced damaging floods and debris flows .

The cause of AR families is an active area of research. Compared with single atmospheric river events, AR families tend to be associated with lower atmospheric pressure heights across the North Pacific, higher pressure heights over the subtropics, a stronger and more zonally elongated jet stream and warmer tropical air temperatures.

Large-scale weather patterns and climate phenomena such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation , or MJO, also play an important role in the generation of AR families. An active MJO shift occurred during the early 2023 events, tilting the odds toward increased atmospheric river activity over California.

A truck drives through muddy streets that fill a large section of town. People stand on one small patch of pavement not flooded.

A recent study by scientists at Stanford and the University of Florida found that storms within AR families cause three to four times more economic damage when the storms arrive back to back than they would have caused by themselves.

How important are atmospheric rivers to the West Coast’s water supply?

I’m a research hydrologist, so I focus on hydrological impacts of atmospheric rivers. Although they can lead to flood hazards, atmospheric rivers are also essential to the Western water supply. Atmospheric rivers have been responsible for ending more than a third of the region’s major droughts, including the severe California drought of 2012-16.

Atmospheric rivers provide an average of 30% to 50% of the West Coast’s annual precipitation .

They also contribute to the snowpack, which provides a significant portion of California’s year-round water supply.

In an average year, one to two extreme atmospheric rivers with snow will be the dominant contributors to the snowpack in the Sierra Nevada. Together, atmospheric rivers will contribute about 30% to 40% of an average season’s total snow accumulation there.

A dam spillway with a full reservoir behind it.

That’s why my colleagues at the Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, part of the University of California, San Diego, work on improving atmospheric river forecasts and predictions . Water managers need to be able to regulate reservoirs and figure out how much water they can save for the dry season while still leaving room in the reservoirs to manage flood risk from future storms.

How is global warming affecting atmospheric rivers?

Warmer air can hold more moisture . As global temperatures rise in the future, we can expect more intense atmospheric rivers, leading to an increase in heavy and extreme precipitation events .

My research also shows that more atmospheric rivers are likely to occur concurrently during already wet conditions . So, the chance of extreme flooding also increases. Another study, by scientists from the University of Washington, suggests that there will be a seasonal shift to more atmospheric rivers earlier in the rainy season.

There will likely also be more year-to-year variability in the total annual precipitation, particularly in California, as a study by my colleagues at the Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes projects.

This article was update Feb. 5, 2024, with flooding and mudslides in California.

  • Climate change
  • Water security
  • Extreme weather
  • Extreme rainfall
  • Water supply
  • Atmospheric rivers

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At least 1 killed in shooting at Kansas City Chiefs Super Bowl celebration

KANSAS CITY, Mo. — At least one person was killed and as many as 21 other people were injured with gunshot wounds in a shooting in Kansas City, Missouri, after a rally Wednesday celebrating the Chiefs' Super Bowl victory, authorities said.

Eight of the injured had "immediately life-threatening" injuries, seven had life-threatening injuries and six had minor injuries after the shooting about 2 p.m. CT, Kansas City Fire Chief Ross Grundyson said.

Three people were detained, though police did not identify suspects.

The person shot dead was named as Lisa Lopez-Galvan by her family. Kansas City, Missouri, radio station KKFI 90.1 said Lopez- Galvan was one of its DJs.

Lisa Lopez-Galvan was killed in Wednesday’s shooting near the Kansas City Chiefs victory celebration.

"It is with sincere sadness and an extremely heavy and broken heart that we let our community know that KKFI DJ Lisa Lopez-Galvan, host of Taste of Tejano lost her life today in the shooting at the KC Chiefs' rally," the station said on Facebook .

Police have not publicly identified any of the other victims.

Follow here for live coverage.

Children's Mercy Hospital said it was treating 12 victims, most of them children with gunshot wounds.

Three people have been detained near a garage west of Union Station, Kansas City police said. Police are working to determine whether bystanders tackled one of the detained people, Police Chief Stacey Graves said.

The shooting appears to have been criminal in nature and not terrorism, according to a preliminary investigation, three law enforcement officials briefed on the incident said.

Image: Parade

Police asked people to quickly leave the area so victims could get medical aid.

Thousands of people had gathered in downtown Kansas City for a celebratory parade and rally at Union Station after the Chiefs' Super Bowl win Sunday.

Police said all of the Chiefs players, coaches and staff members and their families were safe.

A senior White House official said that the Biden administration was "closely monitoring" the situation and that “federal law enforcement is on scene supporting local law enforcement.”

Drue Tranquill, a linebacker for the Chiefs, asked people to join him in prayer for the victims over “this heinous act.”

“Pray that doctors & first responders would have steady hands & that all would experience full healing,” he said on X.

"Praying for Kansas City," Chiefs quarterback Patrick Mahomes also said on X .

Kansas Gov. Laura Kelly was at the celebration and was safely evacuated.

Tim Stelloh is a breaking news reporter for NBC News Digital.

Matthew Mata is an assignment editor in NBC News' Chicago bureau.

SQL DDL: The Definitive Guide on Data Definition Language

Let’s learn how to use DDL statements to change the structure of a database.


Adding new tables, indexes, and triggers and updating existing ones are all common operations performed by database administrators. These tasks impact the database schema, and the queries behind them belong to SQL DDL. But what does that mean?

In this guide, you will see what DDL stands for, how it is related to other SQL languages, and how to use it to manipulate database objects.

Let's dive in!

What Is DDL In SQL?

In SQL, DDL stands for “ Data Definition Language ” and represents the syntax for describing the database schema. In detail, DDL consists of SQL commands to create and update database objects, such as tables, indexes, views, stored procedures , and triggers .

The DDL commands in SQL are:

  • CREATE : To add a new object to the database.
  • ALTER : To change the structure of the database.
  • DROP : To remove an existing object from the database. Check out our guide on how to delete a column in SQL .
  • TRUNCATE : To remove all records from a table, including the space allocated to store this data.

Note that SQL dialects may have some unique DDL commands. For example, MySQL has the RENAME statement to change the name of existing tables. Similarly, PostgreSQL and Oracle offer the COMMENT command to add or update a comment about a database object.

As you can notice, all DDL SQL statement allows you to change the database structure, but not the data. To add or update data from a database, you need to the CRUD commands offered by DML ( Data Manipulation Language ).


The SQL commands can be categorized into the following categories:

  • DDL (Data Definition Language) : Commands like CREATE , ALTER , and DROP to define and manage the structure of a database, such as tables, indexes, and other objects. This also includes the constraints set to ensure data integrity .
  • DML (Data Manipulation Language) : Commands like INSERT , UPDATE , and DELETE to manipulate data within the database.
  • DQL (Data Query Language) : The primary command is SELECT , which is used to retrieve data from the database based on specified criteria and conditions.
  • DCL (Data Control Language) : Commands like GRANT and REVOKE to control access and permissions in the database.
  • TCL (Transaction Control Language) : Commands like COMMIT and ROLLBACK to manage database transactions.

Now that you know the different SQL languages available and their differences, it is time to delve deeper into the SQL DDL commands!

SQL DDL Commands

In this section, you will explore the DDL statements in SQL: CREATE , ALTER , DROP , and TRUNCATE . For each command, you will see details on its syntax, how to use it, and a real-world example. Since DDL commands modify the structure of a database, it is essential to have a tool that simplifies the process of exploring their effects. This is where DbVisualizer comes into play!

As a comprehensive database client, DbVisualizer enables you to visually explore databases across a wide range of DBMS technologies . Here, you will use it to execute queries involving those DDL SQL commands. Keep in mind that DbVisualizer provides user-friendly modals and buttons to perform DDL operations in a simplified way, making database management more accessible.

The following examples will be in MySQL, but the queries below will work in any other SQL-based DBMS. Let’s explore DDL commands in SQL!

The CREATE statement is used to create new database objects, such as tables, views, or indexes. The syntax of the SQL DDL command changes based on the object to create. To add a new table to the database, the syntax is:

For example, you can use a CREATE query to add an employees table to the company database as below:

A new table will be added to the database as desired:

Launching a CREATE query in DbVisualizer

Given a specific table, some useful information to get is the DDL command used to create it. Retrieving that info in DbVisualizer is very simple. All you have to do is open the table in a new tab by clicking on it and selecting the “ DDL ” tab:

Retrieving the DDL definition of a table in DbVisualizer

You can then copy the query and use it to create a similar table on the database. Otherwise, you could create a table like another table with the special CREATE ... LIKE syntax.

The ALTER command modifies an existing database object's structure, such as adding, changing, or deleting columns from a table. Other use cases include renaming database objects or updating the logic of an index, stored procedure, or trigger.

The syntax of the SQL DDL statement changes based on the operation to be performed. For adding a new column to an existing table, the syntax is:

For instance, you can use an ALTER statement to add the department_id column to the employees as follows:

Running the ALTER query

As you can visually verify in DbVisualizer in just a couple of clicks, employees will now have a new column:

Note the department_id column

Its DDL definition will be updated accordingly:

Note the new DDL definition

Note the department_id definition in the CREATE TABLE query.

The DROP statement removes a database object entirely. It is typically used to delete tables, views, indexes, or other objects from the database. The syntax to drop a table is:

For example, launch the following query to delete the employees table:

Dropping a table with a query in DbVisualizer

Refresh the database connection and notice that the company database no longer has an employees table:

Note that the Tables dropdown no longer contains the employees table

The TRUNCATE statement removes all the data from a table while retaining the table structure. It is a faster alternative to deleting all records one by one. Its syntax is simple:

For example, you can clear all records from the employees table in MySQL with:

Launching the TRUNCATE query in DbVisualizer

The employees table will now contain 0 records:

Note the Result set is empty message that indicates that there is no data in the table

Et voilà! You are now a SQL DDL expert!

In this article, you dug into the SQL data definition language. You started from the main concepts and then explored each DDL command. You now know:

  • What SQL DDL means.
  • The key differences in the DDL vs DMS SQL comparison.
  • How to use DDL statements in SQL.

DDL is about changing the structure of a database. Keep track of that with a visual database client like DbVisualizer . On top of supporting dozens of databases, the tool comes with ER schema representation functionality, a drag-and-drop UI to build queries, and powerful query optimization capabilities. Try DbVisualizer for free now !

What are the SQL DDL statements?

SQL DDL statements are used to define and manage the structure of a database. These commands include:

  • CREATE : For creating tables, indexes, and databases
  • ALTER : For modifying existing database objects
  • DROP : For deleting database objects
  • TRUNCATE : For quickly deleting data from a table while preserving its structure.

DDL statements in SQL focus on the database's schema, ensuring its organization and integrity.

What is the difference between SQL DDL and sql.dll?

DDL refers to Data Definition Language or Data Description Language, which consists of commands for defining the structure of a database. On the other hand, sql.dll is a Windows dynamic-link library file used by some software applications. These are entirely different concepts: DDL is a category of SQL commands, while sql.dll is a file used for software functionality.

What are the key aspects to consider in the DDL vs DML SQL comparison?

In a DDL vs DML comparison, key aspects to consider are their purposes. DDL focuses on defining and modifying the database structure, such as creating or altering tables. DML deals instead with manipulating data within tables, including inserting, updating, and deleting records. DDL changes the schema, while DML affects the actual data.

How to get the SQL DDL definition of a table?

To obtain the SQL DDL definition, you can use the SHOW CREATE TABLE statement with the syntax below:

This query will provide the DDL definition of the specified table via a CREATE query. Otherwise, you can get that information with a couple of clicks in a powerful database client like DbVisualizer .

How to use DDL to prevent SQL injection?

To prevent SQL injection, you need to focus on the use of prepared statements, parameterized queries, and input validation in DDL statements. At the same time, keep in mind that most SQL injection attacks occur during data addition or update, so they are more related to DML statements. To prevent SQL injection, do not pass user input straight into a database without validation.

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SQL CONTAINS Function: SQL Server Guide With Examples

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What is the 14th Amendment? What is Section 3? What to know as SCOTUS hears Trump's appeal

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On Thursday, the U.S. Supreme Court will hear former President Donald Trump's appeal to a Colorado ruling that removed him from the presidential primary ballot due to his role in the Jan. 6, 2021 riots at the U.S. Capitol.

In the December 4-3 vote, the Colorado Supreme Court ruled that Trump is disqualified from the race because of the 14th Amendment, Section 3 . The post-Civil War-era provision bars anyone who has "engaged in insurrection" from holding office again.

Similar legal challenges to Trump's candidacy have been filed around the country, and Maine's Democratic secretary of state has ruled that he is ineligible for the ballot.

The ruling could have huge implications in this year's presidential election; if the justices reject Trump's arguments and uphold Colorado's decision, other states would be able to follow suit and remove him from the ballot.

Here is what to know about the Constitutional provision the arguments will hinge on.

Prep for the polls: See who is running for president and compare where they stand on key issues in our Voter Guide

Live updates: Follow Trump's case at Supreme Court

Trump's Supreme Court appeal: 5 arguments the former president can make in 14th amendment case

What is the 14th Amendment?

The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was passed in the post-Civil War era, intended to extend liberties in the Bill of Rights to formerly enslaved people. It was passed by Congress in June 1866 and ratified July 1868.

It also established the right of due process at the state level.

The 14th Amendment was thrust into public debate in recent years when the U.S. Supreme Court overturned Roe v. Wade. The due process clause in the 14th Amendment has been used to defend the right to privacy, a key argument in the 1973 Roe v. Wade ruling protecting the right to an abortion.

Nevada primary takeaways: 'None' beats Haley. Trump wasn't on GOP ballot. Biden wins Dems

14th Amendment, Section 3 full text: What does it say about insurrection?

Section 3 of the 14th Amendment is where debate about Trump's alleged involvement in the Jan. 6 Capitol riots lies.

Section 3 states :

  • No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

In summary, it bars anyone who has engaged in insurrection after swearing to uphold the constitution (by being sworn into office, for example), from holding office again.

Previously: Maine removes Trump from ballot, saying he's disqualified by 'insurrectionist ban'

14th Amendment, Section 3 and Trump's 2024 presidential run

Colorado's lawsuit was one of several across the country that invoked Section 3 of the 14th Amendment to say that Trump is disqualified from being president again.

His lawyers argue that it was never meant to apply to the office of the presidency, which is not mentioned directly, unlike "Senator or Representative in Congress" in Section 3.

Lawyers for plaintiff and watchdog group Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington have argued that Trump's efforts to overturn the results of the 2020 election, including his involvement with the Jan. 6, 2021, attack on the U.S. Capitol, mean he engaged in insurrection. He has been indicted by a federal grand jury for conspiracy and obstruction. The indictment alleges that Trump directed his supporters to march to the Capitol.

A lower court judge initially ruled in November that Trump would stay on the primary ballot. While Colorado District Judge Sarah Wallace found Trump "engaged in an insurrection," she determined that Section 3 of the 14th Amendment did not apply to a president.

The Colorado Supreme Court reversed that ruling.

"We do not reach these conclusions lightly," the court wrote. "We are mindful of the magnitude and weight of the questions now before us. We are likewise mindful of our solemn duty to apply the law, without fear or favor, and without being swayed by public reaction to the decisions that the law mandates we reach."

The court stayed its ruling until January, giving Trump time to appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court.

Contributing: Maureen Groppe, Sudiksha Kochi, John Fritze, Aysha Bagchi, David Jackson, Orlando Mayorquin


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  1. Assignment Statement In #python #computerprogram

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    An Assignment statement is a statement that is used to set a value to the variable name in a program. Assignment statement allows a variable to hold different types of values during its program lifespan. Another way of understanding an assignment statement is, it stores a value in the memory location which is denoted.

  2. Assignment (computer science)

    Assignment (computer science) In computer programming, an assignment statement sets and/or re-sets the value stored in the storage location (s) denoted by a variable name; in other words, it copies a value into the variable. In most imperative programming languages, the assignment statement (or expression) is a fundamental construct.

  3. PDF The assignment statement

    The assignment statement. The assignment statement is used to store a value in a variable. As in most programming languages these days, the assignment statement has the form: <variable>= <expression>; For example, once we have an int variable j, we can assign it the value of expression 4 + 6: int j; j= 4+6; As a convention, we always place a ...

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    An assignment statement designates a value for a variable. An assignment statement can be used as an expression in Java. After a variable is declared, you can assign a value to it by using an assignment statement. In Java, the equal sign = is used as the assignment operator. The syntax for assignment statements is as follows: variable ...

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    The first assignment statement puts A 's value into C, making A =3, B =5 and C =3. The second assignment statements puts B 's value into A. This destroys A 's original value 3. After this, A = 5, B = 5 and C = 3. The third assignment statement puts C 's value into B. This makes A =5, B =3 and C =3. Therefore, the values in A and B are exchanged.

  7. assignment statement

    assignment statement A fundamental statement of all programming languages (except declarative languages) that assigns a new value to a variable. The typical form in Algol-like languages is variable := expression where := is read as "becomes"; the symbol suggests a left-pointing arrow to signify the conveyance of a value to the variable on the left.

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    Assignment: An assignment is a statement in computer programming that is used to set a value to a variable name. The operator used to do assignment is denoted with an equal sign (=). This operand works by assigning the value on the right-hand side of the operand to the operand on the left-hand side. It is possible for the same variable to hold ...

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    Rule 1. Name must be comprised of digits, upper case letters, lower case letters, and the underscore character "_". Rule 2. Must begin with a letter or underscore. A good name for a variable is short but suggestive of its role: Circle_Area.

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    Assignment means: "storing a value (of a particular type) under a variable name". Think of each assignment as copying the value of the righthand side of the expression into a "bucket" associated with the left hand side name! Read this as, the variable called "name" is "assigned" the value computed by the expression to the right of the ...

  12. Different Forms of Assignment Statements in Python

    4. Sequence assignment: In recent version of Python, tuple and list assignment have been generalized into instances of what we now call sequence assignment - any sequence of names can be assigned to any sequence of values, and Python assigns the items one at a time by position. a, b, c = 'HEY'. print('a = ', a)

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    Annotated assignment statements¶ Annotation assignment is the combination, in a single statement, of a variable or attribute annotation and an optional assignment statement: annotated_assignment_stmt::= augtarget ":" expression ["=" (starred_expression | yield_expression)] The difference from normal Assignment statements is that only a single ...

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    The design plan is simply a statement of purpose, as described on pages 40-41 of the book, and an outline. The outline may be formal, as we discussed in class, or a printout of an Open Mind project. It must be a minimum of 1 page typed information, plus 1 page outline. This project is an expansion of your opinion editorial.

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    The U.S. Supreme Court will hear arguments from Donald Trump's lawyers as they contend Colorado's highest court was wrong to ban him from the ballot.